Extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) kinking and coiling are the most frequently reported carotid anomalies in the literature. Embryogenic and acquired causes for such anomalies have been postulated but the prevalence of kinking and coiling has not been well characterized across age categories. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of EICA coiling and kinking among different age groups to better understand its potential causes and changes during the course of life.A total of 2856 subjects aged 0 to 96 years were studied by echo-color Doppler (ECD). Morphology and anatomical anomalies of the EICA were assessed. Patients with anatomical anomalies were stratified by age groups and the prevalence of EICA abnormalities was calculated. The maximal velocity recorded at the level of the kinking was compared with that measured in the common carotid artery and the peak systolic velocity kinking ratio (PSVKR) was calculated.A total of 284 subjects (9.94% of the sample) were found to have kinking or coiling of the EICA. The prevalence was significantly higher at the extremes of age (≤ 20 and > 60 years old, p < 0.001) supporting the hypothesis of a reduction with growth and a new increase in the elderly. PSVKR was higher in subjects with more severity kinking.This study showed a higher prevalence of EICA coiling and kinking in the very young and in the elderly. This bimodal prevalence distribution supports the hypothesis of a congenital anomaly that resolves with somatic growth, while advanced age with its many anatomical changes leads to its reappearance or worsening. Studies with longitudinal follow-up and paired observation are required to support this hypothesis.

Prevalence and morphological changes of carotid kinking and coiling in growth: an echo-color Doppler study of 2856 subjects between aged 0 to 96 years

Di Pino L.;Franchina A. G.
Software
;
Costa S.;Strano F.;Ragusa M.;Tamburino C.;Capodanno D.
Methodology
2020-01-01

Abstract

Extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) kinking and coiling are the most frequently reported carotid anomalies in the literature. Embryogenic and acquired causes for such anomalies have been postulated but the prevalence of kinking and coiling has not been well characterized across age categories. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of EICA coiling and kinking among different age groups to better understand its potential causes and changes during the course of life.A total of 2856 subjects aged 0 to 96 years were studied by echo-color Doppler (ECD). Morphology and anatomical anomalies of the EICA were assessed. Patients with anatomical anomalies were stratified by age groups and the prevalence of EICA abnormalities was calculated. The maximal velocity recorded at the level of the kinking was compared with that measured in the common carotid artery and the peak systolic velocity kinking ratio (PSVKR) was calculated.A total of 284 subjects (9.94% of the sample) were found to have kinking or coiling of the EICA. The prevalence was significantly higher at the extremes of age (≤ 20 and > 60 years old, p < 0.001) supporting the hypothesis of a reduction with growth and a new increase in the elderly. PSVKR was higher in subjects with more severity kinking.This study showed a higher prevalence of EICA coiling and kinking in the very young and in the elderly. This bimodal prevalence distribution supports the hypothesis of a congenital anomaly that resolves with somatic growth, while advanced age with its many anatomical changes leads to its reappearance or worsening. Studies with longitudinal follow-up and paired observation are required to support this hypothesis.
2020
Carotid artery anomalies
Carotid artery dolichoarteriopathies
Echo-color Doppler
Etiopathogenetic hypothesis
Growth
Internal carotid kinking
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/499562
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