The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as “unconventional” therapeutics with precise spatiotemporal control by using light stimuli may open entirely new horizons for innovative therapeutic modalities. Among ROS and RNS, peroxynitrite (ONOO−) plays a dominant role in chemistry and biology in view of its potent oxidizing power and cytotoxic action. We have designed and synthesized a molecular hybrid based on benzophenothiazine as a red light-harvesting antenna joined to anN-nitroso appendage through a flexible spacer. Single photon red light excitation of this molecular construct triggers the release of nitric oxide (˙NO) and simultaneously produces superoxide anions (O2˙−). The diffusion-controlled reaction between these two radical species generates ONOO−, as confirmed by the use of fluorescein-boronate as a highly selective chemical probe. Besides, the red fluorescence of the hybrid allows its tracking in different types of cancer cells where it is well-tolerated in the dark but induces remarkable cell mortality under irradiation with red light in a very low concentration range, with very low light doses (ca.1 J cm−2). This ONOO−generator activatable by highly biocompatible and tissue penetrating single photon red light can open up intriguing prospects in biomedical research, where precise and spatiotemporally controlled concentrations of ONOO−are required.

A generator of peroxynitrite activatable with red light

Parisi C.
Co-primo
;
Failla M.
Co-primo
;
Fraix A.
Co-primo
;
Sortino S.
2021-01-01

Abstract

The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as “unconventional” therapeutics with precise spatiotemporal control by using light stimuli may open entirely new horizons for innovative therapeutic modalities. Among ROS and RNS, peroxynitrite (ONOO−) plays a dominant role in chemistry and biology in view of its potent oxidizing power and cytotoxic action. We have designed and synthesized a molecular hybrid based on benzophenothiazine as a red light-harvesting antenna joined to anN-nitroso appendage through a flexible spacer. Single photon red light excitation of this molecular construct triggers the release of nitric oxide (˙NO) and simultaneously produces superoxide anions (O2˙−). The diffusion-controlled reaction between these two radical species generates ONOO−, as confirmed by the use of fluorescein-boronate as a highly selective chemical probe. Besides, the red fluorescence of the hybrid allows its tracking in different types of cancer cells where it is well-tolerated in the dark but induces remarkable cell mortality under irradiation with red light in a very low concentration range, with very low light doses (ca.1 J cm−2). This ONOO−generator activatable by highly biocompatible and tissue penetrating single photon red light can open up intriguing prospects in biomedical research, where precise and spatiotemporally controlled concentrations of ONOO−are required.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/510464
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