Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound impact on the general population and the burden of pre-existing comorbidities has heavily affected the outcome of the infection. Hyponatraemia has been frequently described. Conversely, hypernatraemia has rarely been described in COVID-19. Methods The studied cohort encompasses all COVID-19 patients consecutively admitted to the Messina Hospital, Italy, during the first wave of the epidemic. Since healthcare structures were not overwhelmed at that time, indications for hospitalization were homogeneous throughout the study period. Serum sodium levels, kidney function [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)], demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded at admission. Correlation between mortality, sodium and eGFR was evaluated by survival curves and univariate and multivariate regression models. Results Baseline biochemical and clinical data at the time of admission were available for 115 COVID-19-confirmed patients. The median age at admission was 73 years (48% men), with a median Charlson Comorbidity Index of 4. A total of 23.5% of patients presented with a sodium level ≥146 mmol/L, while 7.8% had sodium <135 mmol/L. Hypernatraemic patients were older, with higher comorbidity. Age, hypernatraemia and reduced eGFR were associated with increased mortality in both univariate and multivariate regression models (P < 0.001). The combination of hypernatraemia and reduced renal function at admission had an odds ratio of 47.67 (95% confidence interval 10.08–225.43) of dying compared with patients with an eGFR ≥60 mL/min and sodium <145 mmol/L. Conclusions Our study suggests that the association between hypernatraemia and reduced eGFR at referral is a highly relevant prognostic marker for death during hospitalization. The role of this association should be further tested in larger, multicentre cohorts.

Hypernatremia and low eGFR at hospitalization in COVID-19 patients: a deadly combination

Manuela Ceccarelli;Giuseppe Nunnari;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound impact on the general population and the burden of pre-existing comorbidities has heavily affected the outcome of the infection. Hyponatraemia has been frequently described. Conversely, hypernatraemia has rarely been described in COVID-19. Methods The studied cohort encompasses all COVID-19 patients consecutively admitted to the Messina Hospital, Italy, during the first wave of the epidemic. Since healthcare structures were not overwhelmed at that time, indications for hospitalization were homogeneous throughout the study period. Serum sodium levels, kidney function [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)], demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded at admission. Correlation between mortality, sodium and eGFR was evaluated by survival curves and univariate and multivariate regression models. Results Baseline biochemical and clinical data at the time of admission were available for 115 COVID-19-confirmed patients. The median age at admission was 73 years (48% men), with a median Charlson Comorbidity Index of 4. A total of 23.5% of patients presented with a sodium level ≥146 mmol/L, while 7.8% had sodium <135 mmol/L. Hypernatraemic patients were older, with higher comorbidity. Age, hypernatraemia and reduced eGFR were associated with increased mortality in both univariate and multivariate regression models (P < 0.001). The combination of hypernatraemia and reduced renal function at admission had an odds ratio of 47.67 (95% confidence interval 10.08–225.43) of dying compared with patients with an eGFR ≥60 mL/min and sodium <145 mmol/L. Conclusions Our study suggests that the association between hypernatraemia and reduced eGFR at referral is a highly relevant prognostic marker for death during hospitalization. The role of this association should be further tested in larger, multicentre cohorts.
COVID-19, electrolytes, hypernatraemia, kidney function, mortality, SARS-CoV-2, sodium
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/511290
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