Background: Patients treated for paediatric/adolescent (P/A) neoplasia have a high incidence of both benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Given the high incidence of sequelae, literature data show a clinical benefit of morpho-functional thyroid screening in paediatric/adolescent cancer survivors and a careful lifetime follow-up. Patients and methods: The incidence of thyroid alterations was evaluated in a consecutive series of 343 patients treated with chemotherapy (CHE) and radiotherapy (RTE) or only with CHE for P/A tumours between 1976 and 2018 (mean age at time of primary paediatric malignancy 7.8 ± 4.7 years). All patients underwent thyroidal morphofunctional evaluation between 2000 and 2019. Results: 178 patients (51.9%) were treated only with CHE and 165 (48.1%) with CHE+RTE. A functional and/or structural thyroid disease was diagnosed in 147 (42.5%; 24.2% in CHE and 62.4% in CHE+RTE group; p = 0.0001). Of note, 71 (20.7%) patients with no evidence of disease at first evaluation developed a thyroid alteration during the follow-up. Primitive hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 54 patients (15.7%; 11.2% in CHE vs. 20.6% in CHE+RTE group; p = 0.01) and hyperthyroidism in 4. Sixty-three patients developed thyroid nodules (18.4%; 4.0% in CHE and 14.1% in CHE+RTE group; p < 0.001); thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 30 patients (8.7%; 4.5% in CHE and 12.4% in CHE + RTE group; p = 0.007). Conclusions: In patients treated with CHE+RTE, the prevalence of hypothyroidism and nodular pathology, both malignant and benign, were significantly greater than in patients treated with CHE. However, also in the CHE group, the frequency of thyroid disease is not negligible and the pathogenetic mechanisms remain to be clarified. Our data suggest the clinical benefit of morpho-functional thyroid screening in P/A cancer survivors.

Risk of benign and malignant thyroid disorders in subjects treated for paediatric/adolescent neoplasia: Role of morphological and functional screening

Sapuppo G.
;
Tavarelli M.;Cannata E.;La Spina M.;Russo M.;Scollo C.;Spadaro A.;Lo Nigro L.;Russo G.;Di Cataldo A.;Pellegriti G.
2021

Abstract

Background: Patients treated for paediatric/adolescent (P/A) neoplasia have a high incidence of both benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Given the high incidence of sequelae, literature data show a clinical benefit of morpho-functional thyroid screening in paediatric/adolescent cancer survivors and a careful lifetime follow-up. Patients and methods: The incidence of thyroid alterations was evaluated in a consecutive series of 343 patients treated with chemotherapy (CHE) and radiotherapy (RTE) or only with CHE for P/A tumours between 1976 and 2018 (mean age at time of primary paediatric malignancy 7.8 ± 4.7 years). All patients underwent thyroidal morphofunctional evaluation between 2000 and 2019. Results: 178 patients (51.9%) were treated only with CHE and 165 (48.1%) with CHE+RTE. A functional and/or structural thyroid disease was diagnosed in 147 (42.5%; 24.2% in CHE and 62.4% in CHE+RTE group; p = 0.0001). Of note, 71 (20.7%) patients with no evidence of disease at first evaluation developed a thyroid alteration during the follow-up. Primitive hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 54 patients (15.7%; 11.2% in CHE vs. 20.6% in CHE+RTE group; p = 0.01) and hyperthyroidism in 4. Sixty-three patients developed thyroid nodules (18.4%; 4.0% in CHE and 14.1% in CHE+RTE group; p < 0.001); thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 30 patients (8.7%; 4.5% in CHE and 12.4% in CHE + RTE group; p = 0.007). Conclusions: In patients treated with CHE+RTE, the prevalence of hypothyroidism and nodular pathology, both malignant and benign, were significantly greater than in patients treated with CHE. However, also in the CHE group, the frequency of thyroid disease is not negligible and the pathogenetic mechanisms remain to be clarified. Our data suggest the clinical benefit of morpho-functional thyroid screening in P/A cancer survivors.
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy
Childhood/adolescent cancer
Secondary thyroid cancer
Thyroid cancer
Thyroid disease
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/513097
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