Liver cancer is the second leading worldwide cause of cancer‑associated mortalities. Hepatocellular carcinoma, which accounts for the majority of liver tumors, ranks fifth among types of human cancer. Well‑established risk factors for liver cancer include the hepatitis B and C viruses, aflatoxins, alcohol consumption, and oral contraceptives. Tobacco smoking, androgenic steroids, and diabetes mellitus are suspected risk factors. Current knowledge regarding non‑infective occupational risk factors for liver cancer is inconclusive. The relevance of liver disorders to occupational medicine lies in the fact that the majority of chemicals are metabolized in the liver, and toxic metabolites generated via metabolism are the predominant cause of liver damage. However, their non‑specific clinical manifestations that are similar in a number of liver diseases make diagnosis difficult. Furthermore, concomitant conditions, such as viral hepatitis and alcohol or drug abuse, may mask liver disorders that result from occupational hepatotoxic agents and block the demonstration of an occupational cause. The identification of environmental agents that result in human cancer is a long and often difficult process. The purpose of the present review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the association of non‑infective occupational risk exposure and HCC, to encourage further research and draw attention to this global occupational public health problem.

Non-infective occupational risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: A review

LEDDA, CATERINA;LORETO, CARLA AGATA
Co-primo
;
COSTANZO, VALENTINA;FUCCIO SANZA', GIOVANNI;PALMUCCI, STEFANO;FERRANTE, Margherita;COSTA, CHIARA;BIONDI, Antonio Giuseppe;Pomara, C;RAPISARDA, VENERANDO
2017-01-01

Abstract

Liver cancer is the second leading worldwide cause of cancer‑associated mortalities. Hepatocellular carcinoma, which accounts for the majority of liver tumors, ranks fifth among types of human cancer. Well‑established risk factors for liver cancer include the hepatitis B and C viruses, aflatoxins, alcohol consumption, and oral contraceptives. Tobacco smoking, androgenic steroids, and diabetes mellitus are suspected risk factors. Current knowledge regarding non‑infective occupational risk factors for liver cancer is inconclusive. The relevance of liver disorders to occupational medicine lies in the fact that the majority of chemicals are metabolized in the liver, and toxic metabolites generated via metabolism are the predominant cause of liver damage. However, their non‑specific clinical manifestations that are similar in a number of liver diseases make diagnosis difficult. Furthermore, concomitant conditions, such as viral hepatitis and alcohol or drug abuse, may mask liver disorders that result from occupational hepatotoxic agents and block the demonstration of an occupational cause. The identification of environmental agents that result in human cancer is a long and often difficult process. The purpose of the present review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the association of non‑infective occupational risk exposure and HCC, to encourage further research and draw attention to this global occupational public health problem.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/51623
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