Gastrointestinal cancers, particularly colorectal cancer, are mainly influenced by the dietary factor. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer thanks to the phenolic compounds, which possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Polyphenols, alongside their well-known antioxidant properties, also show a pro-oxidative potential, which makes it possible to sensitize tumor cells to oxidative stress. HO-1 combined with antioxidant activity, when overexpressed in cancer cells, is involved in tumor progression, and its inhibition is considered a feasible therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment. In this study, the effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA) on the viability of colon cancer cells (CaCo-2), annexin V, LDH release, reactive oxygen species levels, total thiol content, HO-1, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and p21 expression were evaluated. PCA induced, in a dose-dependent manner, a significantly reduced cell viability of CaCo-2 by oxidative/antioxidant imbalance. The phenolic acid induced modifications in levels of HO-1, non-proteic thiol groups, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, reactive oxygen species, and p21. PCA induced a pro-oxidant effect in cancer cells, and the in vitro pro-apoptotic effect on CaCo-2 cells is mediated by the modulation of redox balance and the inhibition of the HO-1 system that led to the activation of p21. Our results suggest that PCA may represent a useful tool in prevention and/or therapy of colon cancer.

Protocatechuic acid, a simple plant secondary metabolite, induced apoptosis by promoting oxidative stress through ho-1 downregulation and p21 upregulation in colon cancer cells

Acquaviva R.;Tomasello B.
;
Di Giacomo C.
;
Santangelo R.;Naletova I.;Sarpietro M. G.;Castelli F.;Malfa G. A.
2021

Abstract

Gastrointestinal cancers, particularly colorectal cancer, are mainly influenced by the dietary factor. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer thanks to the phenolic compounds, which possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Polyphenols, alongside their well-known antioxidant properties, also show a pro-oxidative potential, which makes it possible to sensitize tumor cells to oxidative stress. HO-1 combined with antioxidant activity, when overexpressed in cancer cells, is involved in tumor progression, and its inhibition is considered a feasible therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment. In this study, the effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA) on the viability of colon cancer cells (CaCo-2), annexin V, LDH release, reactive oxygen species levels, total thiol content, HO-1, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and p21 expression were evaluated. PCA induced, in a dose-dependent manner, a significantly reduced cell viability of CaCo-2 by oxidative/antioxidant imbalance. The phenolic acid induced modifications in levels of HO-1, non-proteic thiol groups, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, reactive oxygen species, and p21. PCA induced a pro-oxidant effect in cancer cells, and the in vitro pro-apoptotic effect on CaCo-2 cells is mediated by the modulation of redox balance and the inhibition of the HO-1 system that led to the activation of p21. Our results suggest that PCA may represent a useful tool in prevention and/or therapy of colon cancer.
Colonic Neoplasms
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase
Heme Oxygenase-1
Humans
Hydroxybenzoates
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
Oxidation-Reduction
Plants
Reactive Oxygen Species
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Up-Regulation
Apoptosis
Down-Regulation
Oxidative Stress
Secondary Metabolism
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
Cell Death
Annexin V
CaCo-2
LDH leakage
P21
Phenolic acids
Prooxidants
Total thiol groups
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/518640
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