Rotenone is a commercial pesticide commonly used to model Parkinson's disease (PD) due to its ability to induce dopaminergic degeneration. Studies have confirmed that rotenone causes microglial activation, which seems to contribute to the toxic effects seen in rodent models. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are two structurally related neuropeptides that have robust neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. However, their ability to regulate microglial activity in response to rotenone is not fully understood. Using rotenone as an inflammatory stimulus, we tested whether PACAP or VIP could mitigate microglial activation in BV2 microglial cells. Rotenone dose-dependently reduced cell viability and the percentage of apoptotic cells. It also increased the release of nitric oxide (NO) in culture media and the expression of microglial activation markers and pro-inflammatory markers, including CD11b, MMP-9 and IL-6, and heightened the endogenous levels of PACAP and its preferring receptor PAC1. Co-treatment with PACAP or VIP prevented rotenone-induced increase of NO, CD11b, MMP-9 and IL-6. These results indicate that both PACAP and VIP are able to prevent the pro-inflammatory effects of rotenone in BV2 cells, supporting the idea that these molecules can have therapeutic value in slowing down PD progression.

PACAP and VIP Mitigate Rotenone-Induced Inflammation in BV-2 Microglial Cells

Musumeci, Giuseppe
Secondo
;
2022

Abstract

Rotenone is a commercial pesticide commonly used to model Parkinson's disease (PD) due to its ability to induce dopaminergic degeneration. Studies have confirmed that rotenone causes microglial activation, which seems to contribute to the toxic effects seen in rodent models. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are two structurally related neuropeptides that have robust neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. However, their ability to regulate microglial activity in response to rotenone is not fully understood. Using rotenone as an inflammatory stimulus, we tested whether PACAP or VIP could mitigate microglial activation in BV2 microglial cells. Rotenone dose-dependently reduced cell viability and the percentage of apoptotic cells. It also increased the release of nitric oxide (NO) in culture media and the expression of microglial activation markers and pro-inflammatory markers, including CD11b, MMP-9 and IL-6, and heightened the endogenous levels of PACAP and its preferring receptor PAC1. Co-treatment with PACAP or VIP prevented rotenone-induced increase of NO, CD11b, MMP-9 and IL-6. These results indicate that both PACAP and VIP are able to prevent the pro-inflammatory effects of rotenone in BV2 cells, supporting the idea that these molecules can have therapeutic value in slowing down PD progression.
Microglia
Neuroinflammation
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)
Rotenone
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/534358
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