Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important Mediterranean crop. In Italy, pistachio is cultivated in the southern regions, of which Sicily is the main production area. Recently, the phytopathological situation of this crop has started to be updated, and new diseases have been discovered, studied, and reported. Botryosphaeriaceae spp. and Leptosillia pistaciae are major canker/rot pathogens, and Cytospora pistaciae and Eutypa lata have been reported as minor canker pathogens. In this paper, we evaluated different biological control agents, belonging to Trichoderma asperellum, T. atroviride and T. harzianum, as well as some Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains, against above-mentioned pathogens. Results of dual culture assays showed that all the biological products, both fungi and bacteria, were able to inhibit the mycelial growth of the pathogens in vitro. Experiments using detached twigs showed no effect of biocontrol agents in reducing infections, except for Neofusicoccum hellenicum treated with T. harzianum T22 and Leptosillia pistaciae treated with B. amyloliquefaciens D747. Results of detached fruit experiments showed an efficacy ranging from 32.5 to 66.9% of all the biological products in reducing the lesions caused by N. mediterraneum. This study provides basic information for future research on biological control of pistachio diseases and future prospects for search of more effective biological control agents for canker diseases than those studied here.

Potential Role of Biocontrol Agents for Sustainable Management of Fungal Pathogens Causing Canker and Fruit Rot of Pistachio in Italy

Gusella, Giorgio;Vitale, Alessandro
;
Polizzi, Giancarlo
2022

Abstract

Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important Mediterranean crop. In Italy, pistachio is cultivated in the southern regions, of which Sicily is the main production area. Recently, the phytopathological situation of this crop has started to be updated, and new diseases have been discovered, studied, and reported. Botryosphaeriaceae spp. and Leptosillia pistaciae are major canker/rot pathogens, and Cytospora pistaciae and Eutypa lata have been reported as minor canker pathogens. In this paper, we evaluated different biological control agents, belonging to Trichoderma asperellum, T. atroviride and T. harzianum, as well as some Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains, against above-mentioned pathogens. Results of dual culture assays showed that all the biological products, both fungi and bacteria, were able to inhibit the mycelial growth of the pathogens in vitro. Experiments using detached twigs showed no effect of biocontrol agents in reducing infections, except for Neofusicoccum hellenicum treated with T. harzianum T22 and Leptosillia pistaciae treated with B. amyloliquefaciens D747. Results of detached fruit experiments showed an efficacy ranging from 32.5 to 66.9% of all the biological products in reducing the lesions caused by N. mediterraneum. This study provides basic information for future research on biological control of pistachio diseases and future prospects for search of more effective biological control agents for canker diseases than those studied here.
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; biological control; canker management; fruit rots; Pistachio diseases; Trichoderma
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/534497
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