Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as powerful players in cell-to-cell communication both in healthy and diseased brain. In Parkinson's disease (PD)-characterized by selective dopaminergic neuron death in ventral midbrain (VMB) and degeneration of their terminals in striatum (STR)-astrocytes exert dual harmful/protective functions, with mechanisms not fully elucidated. Here, this study shows that astrocytes from the VMB-, STR-, and VMB/STR-depleted brains release a population of small EVs in a region-specific manner. Interestingly, VMB-astrocytes secreted the highest rate of EVs, which is further exclusively increased in response to CCL3, a chemokine that promotes robust dopaminergic neuroprotection in different PD models. The neuroprotective potential of nigrostriatal astrocyte-EVs is investigated in differentiated versus undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells exposed to oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity. EVs from both VMB- and STR-astrocytes counteract H2O2-induced caspase-3 activation specifically in differentiated cells, with EVs from CCL3-treated astrocytes showing a higher protective effect. High resolution respirometry further reveals that nigrostriatal astrocyte-EVs rescue neuronal mitochondrial complex I function impaired by the neurotoxin MPP+. Notably, only EVs from VMB-astrocyte fully restore ATP production, again specifically in differentiated SH-SY5Y. These results highlight a regional diversity in the nigrostriatal system for the secretion and activities of astrocyte-EVs, with neuroprotective implications for PD.

Small Extracellular Vesicles Secreted by Nigrostriatal Astrocytes Rescue Cell Death and Preserve Mitochondrial Function in Parkinson's Disease

Leggio, Loredana;L'Episcopo, Francesca;Vivarelli, Silvia;Risiglione, Pierpaolo;Pappalardo, Fabrizio;Messina, Angela;Marchetti, Bianca;Iraci, Nunzio
2022

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as powerful players in cell-to-cell communication both in healthy and diseased brain. In Parkinson's disease (PD)-characterized by selective dopaminergic neuron death in ventral midbrain (VMB) and degeneration of their terminals in striatum (STR)-astrocytes exert dual harmful/protective functions, with mechanisms not fully elucidated. Here, this study shows that astrocytes from the VMB-, STR-, and VMB/STR-depleted brains release a population of small EVs in a region-specific manner. Interestingly, VMB-astrocytes secreted the highest rate of EVs, which is further exclusively increased in response to CCL3, a chemokine that promotes robust dopaminergic neuroprotection in different PD models. The neuroprotective potential of nigrostriatal astrocyte-EVs is investigated in differentiated versus undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells exposed to oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity. EVs from both VMB- and STR-astrocytes counteract H2O2-induced caspase-3 activation specifically in differentiated cells, with EVs from CCL3-treated astrocytes showing a higher protective effect. High resolution respirometry further reveals that nigrostriatal astrocyte-EVs rescue neuronal mitochondrial complex I function impaired by the neurotoxin MPP+. Notably, only EVs from VMB-astrocyte fully restore ATP production, again specifically in differentiated SH-SY5Y. These results highlight a regional diversity in the nigrostriatal system for the secretion and activities of astrocyte-EVs, with neuroprotective implications for PD.
Parkinson's disease
astrocytes
exosomes
extracellular vesicles
high-resolution respirometry
mitochondria
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/536017
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