Importance sampling (IS) and numerical integration methods are usually employed for approximating moments of complicated target distributions. In its basic procedure, the IS methodology randomly draws samples from a proposal distribution and weights them accordingly, accounting for the mismatch between the target and proposal. In this work, we present a general framework of numerical integration techniques inspired by the IS methodology. The framework can also be seen as an incorporation of deterministic rules into IS methods, reducing the error of the estimators by several orders of magnitude in several problems of interest. The proposed approach extends the range of applicability of the Gaussian quadrature rules. For instance, the IS perspective allows us to use Gauss-Hermite rules in problems where the integrand is not involving a Gaussian distribution, and even more, when the integrand can only be evaluated up to a normalizing constant, as it is usually the case in Bayesian inference. The novel perspective makes use of recent advances on the multiple IS (MIS) and adaptive (AIS) literatures, and incorporates it to a wider numerical integration framework that combines several numerical integration rules that can be iteratively adapted. We analyze the convergence of the algorithms and provide some representative examples showing the superiority of the proposed approach in terms of performance.

#### Abstract

Importance sampling (IS) and numerical integration methods are usually employed for approximating moments of complicated target distributions. In its basic procedure, the IS methodology randomly draws samples from a proposal distribution and weights them accordingly, accounting for the mismatch between the target and proposal. In this work, we present a general framework of numerical integration techniques inspired by the IS methodology. The framework can also be seen as an incorporation of deterministic rules into IS methods, reducing the error of the estimators by several orders of magnitude in several problems of interest. The proposed approach extends the range of applicability of the Gaussian quadrature rules. For instance, the IS perspective allows us to use Gauss-Hermite rules in problems where the integrand is not involving a Gaussian distribution, and even more, when the integrand can only be evaluated up to a normalizing constant, as it is usually the case in Bayesian inference. The novel perspective makes use of recent advances on the multiple IS (MIS) and adaptive (AIS) literatures, and incorporates it to a wider numerical integration framework that combines several numerical integration rules that can be iteratively adapted. We analyze the convergence of the algorithms and provide some representative examples showing the superiority of the proposed approach in terms of performance.
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2021
Bayesian inference
Importance sampling
numerical integration
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: `https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/537585`