Immunotoxicity hazard identification of chemicals aims to evaluate the potential for unintended effects of chemical exposure on the immune system. Perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent, globally disseminated environmental contaminants known to be immunotoxic. Elevated PFAS exposure is associated with lower antibody responses to vaccinations in children and in adults. In addition, some studies have reported a correlation between PFAS levels in the body and lower resistance to disease, in other words an increased risk of infections or cancers. In this context, modelling and simulation platforms could be used to simulate the human immune system with the aim to evaluate the adverse effects that immunotoxicants may have. Here, we show the conditions under which a mathematical model developed for one purpose and application (e.g., in the pharmaceutical domain) can be successfully translated and transferred to another (e.g., in the chemicals domain) without undergoing significant adaptation. In particular, we demonstrate that the Universal Immune System Simulator was able to simulate the effects of PFAS on the immune system, introducing entities and new interactions that are biologically involved in the phenomenon. This also revealed a potentially exploitable pathway for assessing immunotoxicity through a computational model. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Translatability and transferability of in silico models: Context of use switching to predict the effects of environmental chemicals on the immune system

Pappalardo, F;Russo, G;
2022

Abstract

Immunotoxicity hazard identification of chemicals aims to evaluate the potential for unintended effects of chemical exposure on the immune system. Perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent, globally disseminated environmental contaminants known to be immunotoxic. Elevated PFAS exposure is associated with lower antibody responses to vaccinations in children and in adults. In addition, some studies have reported a correlation between PFAS levels in the body and lower resistance to disease, in other words an increased risk of infections or cancers. In this context, modelling and simulation platforms could be used to simulate the human immune system with the aim to evaluate the adverse effects that immunotoxicants may have. Here, we show the conditions under which a mathematical model developed for one purpose and application (e.g., in the pharmaceutical domain) can be successfully translated and transferred to another (e.g., in the chemicals domain) without undergoing significant adaptation. In particular, we demonstrate that the Universal Immune System Simulator was able to simulate the effects of PFAS on the immune system, introducing entities and new interactions that are biologically involved in the phenomenon. This also revealed a potentially exploitable pathway for assessing immunotoxicity through a computational model. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/).
In silico trials
Immune system
PFAS
Risk-assessment
Vaccines
Immunotoxicity
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/537624
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact