Hemoglobin and iron overload is considered the major contributor to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury. Accumulation of iron in the brain leads to microglia activation, inflammation and cell loss. Current available treatments for iron overload-mediated disorders are characterized by severe adverse effects, making such conditions an unmet clinical need. We assessed the potential of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as an iron chelator, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in both in vitro and in vivo models of iron overload. ALA was found to revert iron-overload-induced toxicity in HMC3 microglia cell line, preventing cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation and reducing glutathione depletion. Furthermore, ALA regulated gene expression of iron-related markers and inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1 beta and TNF. Iron toxicity also affects mitochondria fitness and biogenesis, impairments which were prevented by ALA pre-treatment in vitro. Immunocytochemistry assay showed that, although iron treatment caused inflammatory activation of microglia, ALA treatment resulted in increased ARG1 expression, suggesting it promoted an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We also assessed the effects of ALA in an in vivo zebrafish model of iron overload, showing that ALA treatment was able to reduce iron accumulation in the brain and reduced iron-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation. Our data support ALA as a novel approach for iron-overload-induced brain damage.

Neuroprotective Role of α-Lipoic Acid in Iron-Overload-Mediated Toxicity and Inflammation in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

Carota, Giuseppe;Distefano, Alfio;Spampinato, Mariarita;Giallongo, Cesarina;Broggi, Giuseppe;Longhitano, Lucia;Palumbo, Giuseppe A;Parenti, Rosalba;Caltabiano, Rosario;Giallongo, Sebastiano;Di Rosa, Michelino;Polosa, Riccardo;Bramanti, Vincenzo;Vicario, Nunzio;Li Volti, Giovanni;Tibullo, Daniele
2022

Abstract

Hemoglobin and iron overload is considered the major contributor to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury. Accumulation of iron in the brain leads to microglia activation, inflammation and cell loss. Current available treatments for iron overload-mediated disorders are characterized by severe adverse effects, making such conditions an unmet clinical need. We assessed the potential of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as an iron chelator, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in both in vitro and in vivo models of iron overload. ALA was found to revert iron-overload-induced toxicity in HMC3 microglia cell line, preventing cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation and reducing glutathione depletion. Furthermore, ALA regulated gene expression of iron-related markers and inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1 beta and TNF. Iron toxicity also affects mitochondria fitness and biogenesis, impairments which were prevented by ALA pre-treatment in vitro. Immunocytochemistry assay showed that, although iron treatment caused inflammatory activation of microglia, ALA treatment resulted in increased ARG1 expression, suggesting it promoted an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We also assessed the effects of ALA in an in vivo zebrafish model of iron overload, showing that ALA treatment was able to reduce iron accumulation in the brain and reduced iron-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation. Our data support ALA as a novel approach for iron-overload-induced brain damage.
antioxidant
iron
microglia
neurodegeneration
neuroinflammation
zebrafish
α-lipoic acid
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/538179
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