The presence of heavy metals (HMs) in the soil can pose risks to human health via ingestion and dermal absorption. This systematic review and meta-analysis study focused on both of health and ecological risks attributed to the six HMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) in the soil of different Provinces of Iran. Articles were selected in the Web of Science and Scopus from 2000 to August 2021. The study was carried out according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, finally 32 studies were reviewed which the ranking of mean concentrations of the studied metals followed as: As > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. Mean concentration of Cd and As calculated via meta-analysis in the studied Provinces was found to be more than Iran's environment protection agency (EPA) guideline values. Other HMs met guideline values. A significant non-carcinogenic risk attributed to the As found in Kurdistan Province (hazard index, HI > 1). Furthermore, a significant carcinogenic health risk was found in Kurdistan and West Azerbaijan associated to As and in Fars, Khozestan and Khorasan-e-Razavi Provinces associated to Cd (ELCR >10−4). Concerning the impact on the ecosystem, Cd, As and Pb caused ecological risks in some areas of Iran (ecological risk, ER > 40 and potential ecological risk, PER >150). Hence, we can conclude that Cd and As are important heavy metals from the health aspect. Moreover, Cd, As and Pb must be considered from an ecological point of view. Therefore, control of the Cd, As and Pb release in the environment and remediation of polluted sites through novel approaches is recommended.

Investigation of health and ecological risk attributed to the soil heavy metals in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Gea Oliveri Conti
Penultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2023

Abstract

The presence of heavy metals (HMs) in the soil can pose risks to human health via ingestion and dermal absorption. This systematic review and meta-analysis study focused on both of health and ecological risks attributed to the six HMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) in the soil of different Provinces of Iran. Articles were selected in the Web of Science and Scopus from 2000 to August 2021. The study was carried out according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, finally 32 studies were reviewed which the ranking of mean concentrations of the studied metals followed as: As > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. Mean concentration of Cd and As calculated via meta-analysis in the studied Provinces was found to be more than Iran's environment protection agency (EPA) guideline values. Other HMs met guideline values. A significant non-carcinogenic risk attributed to the As found in Kurdistan Province (hazard index, HI > 1). Furthermore, a significant carcinogenic health risk was found in Kurdistan and West Azerbaijan associated to As and in Fars, Khozestan and Khorasan-e-Razavi Provinces associated to Cd (ELCR >10−4). Concerning the impact on the ecosystem, Cd, As and Pb caused ecological risks in some areas of Iran (ecological risk, ER > 40 and potential ecological risk, PER >150). Hence, we can conclude that Cd and As are important heavy metals from the health aspect. Moreover, Cd, As and Pb must be considered from an ecological point of view. Therefore, control of the Cd, As and Pb release in the environment and remediation of polluted sites through novel approaches is recommended.
Heavy metalHealth risk assessmentEcological risk assessmentSoil pollution, arsenic, cadmium
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/538545
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