It is well known that the JPEG compression pipeline leaves residual traces in the compressed images that are useful for forensic investigations. Through the analysis of such insights the history of a digital image can be reconstructed by means of First Quantization Estimations (FQE), often employed for the camera model identification (CMI) task. In this paper, a novel FQE technique for JPEG double compressed images is proposed which employs a mixed approach based on Machine Learning and statistical analysis. The proposed method was designed to work in the aligned case (i.e., $8 \times 8$ JPEG grid is not misaligned among the various compressions) and demonstrated to be able to work effectively in different challenging scenarios (small input patches, custom quantization tables) without strong a-priori assumptions, surpassing state-of-the-art solutions. Finally, an in-depth analysis on the impact of image input sizes, dataset image resolutions, custom quantization tables and different Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) implementations was carried out.

First Quantization Estimation by a Robust Data Exploitation Strategy of DCT Coefficients

Battiato S.;Giudice O.;Guarnera F.;Puglisi G.
2021

Abstract

It is well known that the JPEG compression pipeline leaves residual traces in the compressed images that are useful for forensic investigations. Through the analysis of such insights the history of a digital image can be reconstructed by means of First Quantization Estimations (FQE), often employed for the camera model identification (CMI) task. In this paper, a novel FQE technique for JPEG double compressed images is proposed which employs a mixed approach based on Machine Learning and statistical analysis. The proposed method was designed to work in the aligned case (i.e., $8 \times 8$ JPEG grid is not misaligned among the various compressions) and demonstrated to be able to work effectively in different challenging scenarios (small input patches, custom quantization tables) without strong a-priori assumptions, surpassing state-of-the-art solutions. Finally, an in-depth analysis on the impact of image input sizes, dataset image resolutions, custom quantization tables and different Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) implementations was carried out.
FQE
JPEG
multimedia forensics
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/539561
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