A maternal diet, before and during pregnancy, plays a key role in ensuring maternal and newborn health. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, may have compromised dietary habits in the general population and in specific subgroups of individuals. Here, we evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on the diet of pregnant women, using data from two mother-child cohorts in Sicily (Italy). Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire and analyzed through the Mediterranean diet (MD) score and principal component analysis (PCA). The comparison of maternal dietary consumption before and during the COVID-19 pandemic showed differences in terms of vegetables (p < 0.001), fruit (p < 0.001), dairy products (p < 0.001), fish (p < 0.001), and legumes (p = 0.001). Accordingly, after adjusting for covariates, mothers enrolled during the pandemic were more likely to report low adherence to MD than those enrolled before (OR = 1.65; 95%CI = 1.12-2.42; p = 0.011). A similar result was obtained by analyzing the adherence to a prudent dietary pattern, derived through PCA and characterized by high intake of cooked and row vegetables, legumes, fruit, fish, and soup. Overall, these findings suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic may have influenced maternal diet during pregnancy. However, further efforts are needed to investigate the main causes and consequences of this change.

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Dietary Patterns of Pregnant Women: A Comparison between Two Mother-Child Cohorts in Sicily, Italy

Magnano San Lio, Roberta;Barchitta, Martina;Maugeri, Andrea;La Rosa, Maria Clara;Giunta, Giuliana;Panella, Marco;Cianci, Antonio;Agodi, Antonella
2022

Abstract

A maternal diet, before and during pregnancy, plays a key role in ensuring maternal and newborn health. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, may have compromised dietary habits in the general population and in specific subgroups of individuals. Here, we evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on the diet of pregnant women, using data from two mother-child cohorts in Sicily (Italy). Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire and analyzed through the Mediterranean diet (MD) score and principal component analysis (PCA). The comparison of maternal dietary consumption before and during the COVID-19 pandemic showed differences in terms of vegetables (p < 0.001), fruit (p < 0.001), dairy products (p < 0.001), fish (p < 0.001), and legumes (p = 0.001). Accordingly, after adjusting for covariates, mothers enrolled during the pandemic were more likely to report low adherence to MD than those enrolled before (OR = 1.65; 95%CI = 1.12-2.42; p = 0.011). A similar result was obtained by analyzing the adherence to a prudent dietary pattern, derived through PCA and characterized by high intake of cooked and row vegetables, legumes, fruit, fish, and soup. Overall, these findings suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic may have influenced maternal diet during pregnancy. However, further efforts are needed to investigate the main causes and consequences of this change.
COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2
diet
nutrition
pregnancy
Animals
Diet
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Mother-Child Relations
Pandemics
Pregnancy
Pregnant Women
Sicily
Vegetables
COVID-19
Diet, Mediterranean
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/539602
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