Background: Dietary fats, and especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), have been blamed for being the culprit in the dramatic increase in obesity and its associated diseases. However multiple systematic reviews and recent meta-analyses do not support the association between SFA and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to test whether specific types and subtypes of dietary fats are associated with metabolic outcomes in a cohort of Italian adults. Methods: Nutritional and demographic data of 1936 adults living in the south of Italy were examined. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were administered to assess the intake of total dietary fat and each specific class of dietary fat, such as SFA, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The intake of fatty acids was also examined according to the carbon-chain length of each individual class. Cases of hypertension, type-2 diabetes and dyslipidemias were collected from previous doctor-confirmed diagnosis records (or direct measurement of blood pressure). Results: After adjustment for potential confounding factors, individuals reporting higher intakes of total and saturated fats were associated with lower likelihood of having hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.91 and OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.89, respectively). Moreover, higher intake of short-chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFAs) and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCSFAs) was inversely associated with dyslipidemia and diabetes (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.82 and OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.72, respectively). Among MUFAs, C18:1 was inversely associated with hypertension and diabetes (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.92 and OR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.67, respectively), while C14:1 intake was inversely associated only with hypertension (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.88). In contrast, C20:1 intake was associated with dyslipidemia (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 1.33, 8.42). Regarding PUFA, C18:2 and 20:5 were inversely associated with hypertension (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.60 and OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.89, respectively). Conclusions: The consumption of SFA does not seem to be harmful to cardio-metabolic health and, on the contrary, SCSFA may exert beneficial effects. Further studies are needed to clearly validate the results of the present study.

Dietary Fats and Cardio-Metabolic Outcomes in a Cohort of Italian Adults

Currenti, Walter;Godos, Justyna;Grosso, Giuseppe;La Vignera, Sandro;Buscemi, Silvio;Galvano, Fabio
2022

Abstract

Background: Dietary fats, and especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), have been blamed for being the culprit in the dramatic increase in obesity and its associated diseases. However multiple systematic reviews and recent meta-analyses do not support the association between SFA and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to test whether specific types and subtypes of dietary fats are associated with metabolic outcomes in a cohort of Italian adults. Methods: Nutritional and demographic data of 1936 adults living in the south of Italy were examined. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were administered to assess the intake of total dietary fat and each specific class of dietary fat, such as SFA, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The intake of fatty acids was also examined according to the carbon-chain length of each individual class. Cases of hypertension, type-2 diabetes and dyslipidemias were collected from previous doctor-confirmed diagnosis records (or direct measurement of blood pressure). Results: After adjustment for potential confounding factors, individuals reporting higher intakes of total and saturated fats were associated with lower likelihood of having hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.91 and OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.89, respectively). Moreover, higher intake of short-chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFAs) and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCSFAs) was inversely associated with dyslipidemia and diabetes (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.82 and OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.72, respectively). Among MUFAs, C18:1 was inversely associated with hypertension and diabetes (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.92 and OR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.67, respectively), while C14:1 intake was inversely associated only with hypertension (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.88). In contrast, C20:1 intake was associated with dyslipidemia (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 1.33, 8.42). Regarding PUFA, C18:2 and 20:5 were inversely associated with hypertension (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.60 and OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.89, respectively). Conclusions: The consumption of SFA does not seem to be harmful to cardio-metabolic health and, on the contrary, SCSFA may exert beneficial effects. Further studies are needed to clearly validate the results of the present study.
dietary fats
fat
monounsaturated fats
polyunsaturated fats
saturated fats
short-chain fatty acids
Adult
Humans
Fatty Acids
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
Fatty Acids, Volatile
Carbon
Dietary Fats
Hypertension
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/541720
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