Background Myeloid dysfunction is an emerging hallmark of microenvironment changes occurring in multiple myeloma (MM). Our previous work showed that FcγRI/CD64 overexpression in neutrophils of newly diagnosed MM patients is associated to inferior outcomes, reduced oxidative bursts and phagocytosis, with an increased risk of bacterial infections. Pomalidomide is a novel immune-modulatory drug approved for relapsed/refractory patients (RRMM), with drug-related neutropenia as major limitation to treatment. Patients and methods Herein, we describe a prospective analysis of 51 consecutive RRMM patients treated with pomalidomide and dexamethasone (PomDex) from March 2015 through December 2016, associated with secondary prophylaxis with filgrastim (G-CSF) in case of neutrophil count <1500 cells/μL. Neutrophil function was investigated by flow cytometry, including the phagocytosis, oxidative bursts, and median fluorescence intensity of FcγRI-CD64. Controls included a group of newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM), asymptomatic (smoldering myeloma, MGUS) and healthy subjects referred to our Center in the same time-frame. Results Compared to controls, RRMM neutrophils had higher expression of FcγRI/CD64 and lower phagocytic activity and oxidative bursts. We maintained median leukocyte counts higher than 3.5 × 109/L for 6 cycles, and median neutrophil counts higher than 1.5 × 109/L, with only 6 (11%) patients developing grade 3-4 infections, without pomalidomide dose reduction. After 4 cycles of PomDex, FcγRI/CD64 was further increased in neutrophils, and phagocytic activity and oxidative bursts recovered independently from filgrastim exposure and the quality of hematological responses. Similarly, in NDMM patients, lenalidomide but not bortezomib upregulated FcγRI/CD64 expression, improving phagocytic activity and oxidative bursta as tested in vitro. Conclusions Our combined biological and clinical data provide new information on the ability of pomalidomide and lenalidomide to modulate the functional activity of neutrophils, despite their chronic activation due to FcγRI/CD64 overexpression.

Lenalidomide and Pomalidomide Improve Function and Induce FcγRI/CD64 in Multiple Myeloma Neutrophils

Romano, Alessandra;Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura;Di Raimondo, Francesco
2021

Abstract

Background Myeloid dysfunction is an emerging hallmark of microenvironment changes occurring in multiple myeloma (MM). Our previous work showed that FcγRI/CD64 overexpression in neutrophils of newly diagnosed MM patients is associated to inferior outcomes, reduced oxidative bursts and phagocytosis, with an increased risk of bacterial infections. Pomalidomide is a novel immune-modulatory drug approved for relapsed/refractory patients (RRMM), with drug-related neutropenia as major limitation to treatment. Patients and methods Herein, we describe a prospective analysis of 51 consecutive RRMM patients treated with pomalidomide and dexamethasone (PomDex) from March 2015 through December 2016, associated with secondary prophylaxis with filgrastim (G-CSF) in case of neutrophil count <1500 cells/μL. Neutrophil function was investigated by flow cytometry, including the phagocytosis, oxidative bursts, and median fluorescence intensity of FcγRI-CD64. Controls included a group of newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM), asymptomatic (smoldering myeloma, MGUS) and healthy subjects referred to our Center in the same time-frame. Results Compared to controls, RRMM neutrophils had higher expression of FcγRI/CD64 and lower phagocytic activity and oxidative bursts. We maintained median leukocyte counts higher than 3.5 × 109/L for 6 cycles, and median neutrophil counts higher than 1.5 × 109/L, with only 6 (11%) patients developing grade 3-4 infections, without pomalidomide dose reduction. After 4 cycles of PomDex, FcγRI/CD64 was further increased in neutrophils, and phagocytic activity and oxidative bursts recovered independently from filgrastim exposure and the quality of hematological responses. Similarly, in NDMM patients, lenalidomide but not bortezomib upregulated FcγRI/CD64 expression, improving phagocytic activity and oxidative bursta as tested in vitro. Conclusions Our combined biological and clinical data provide new information on the ability of pomalidomide and lenalidomide to modulate the functional activity of neutrophils, despite their chronic activation due to FcγRI/CD64 overexpression.
CD64
multiple myeloma
neutrophil
phagocytosis
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/542004
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact