This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the concentration of the by-products of chlorination in the swimming pool and estimate human health risk for the swimmers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In this study, the chloroform concentrations of 16 samples were measured using Gas Chromatography (GC). All the measured concentrations were less than the allowed amount announced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results of the cancer risk (CR) and hazard index (HI) showed that the major exposure routes were found to be dermal during swimming and the 95 percentile of estimated CR and HI for the male group were 1.38 × 10−10 and 1.82 × 10−5 respectively, which is higher than the values of 5.48 × 10−10 and 2.25 × 10−5 respectively, for the women group. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the swimming exposure time (ET), and chloroform concentration were the most relevant variables in the health risk model. Therefore, knowledge about the sources of micro-pollutants in swimming pools might help promote the health methods of the pool environment.

Determination of chloroform concentration and human exposure assessment in the swimming pool

Ferrante M.
Penultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Oliveri Conti G.
Ultimo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2022

Abstract

This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the concentration of the by-products of chlorination in the swimming pool and estimate human health risk for the swimmers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In this study, the chloroform concentrations of 16 samples were measured using Gas Chromatography (GC). All the measured concentrations were less than the allowed amount announced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results of the cancer risk (CR) and hazard index (HI) showed that the major exposure routes were found to be dermal during swimming and the 95 percentile of estimated CR and HI for the male group were 1.38 × 10−10 and 1.82 × 10−5 respectively, which is higher than the values of 5.48 × 10−10 and 2.25 × 10−5 respectively, for the women group. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the swimming exposure time (ET), and chloroform concentration were the most relevant variables in the health risk model. Therefore, knowledge about the sources of micro-pollutants in swimming pools might help promote the health methods of the pool environment.
Chlorination, Chloroform, Disinfection by-products, Swimming pool, Trihalomethanes, Chloroform, Cross-Sectional Studies, Disinfection, Female, Humans, Male, Swimming, Trihalomethanes, Disinfectants, Swimming Pools.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/542119
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