Renal transplantation (RT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, significantly improving patients' survival and quality of life. However, approximately 3-23% of patients encounter post-operative complications, and radiology plays a major role for their early detection and treatment or follow-up planning. CT and MRI are excellent imaging modalities to evaluate renal transplant post-operative course; nevertheless, they are both associated with a high cost and low accessibility, as well as some contraindications, making them not feasible for all patients. In particular, gadolinium-based contrast can lead to the rare condition of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and iodine-based contrast can lead to contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). CT also exposes the patients who may require multiple examinations to ionizing radiation. Therefore, considering the overall advantages and disadvantages, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is presently considered an effective first-line imaging modality for post-operative early and long-term follow-up in RT, reducing the need for biopsies and providing adequate guidance for drainage procedures. Hence, this paper aims to review the updated knowledge on CEUS compared with CT and MRI for the evaluation of RT renal transplant complications; advantages, limitations, and possible recommendations are provided.

Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Compared with MRI and CT in the Evaluation of Post-Renal Transplant Complications

David, Emanuele;Basile, Antonio;Cantisani, Vito
2022

Abstract

Renal transplantation (RT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, significantly improving patients' survival and quality of life. However, approximately 3-23% of patients encounter post-operative complications, and radiology plays a major role for their early detection and treatment or follow-up planning. CT and MRI are excellent imaging modalities to evaluate renal transplant post-operative course; nevertheless, they are both associated with a high cost and low accessibility, as well as some contraindications, making them not feasible for all patients. In particular, gadolinium-based contrast can lead to the rare condition of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and iodine-based contrast can lead to contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). CT also exposes the patients who may require multiple examinations to ionizing radiation. Therefore, considering the overall advantages and disadvantages, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is presently considered an effective first-line imaging modality for post-operative early and long-term follow-up in RT, reducing the need for biopsies and providing adequate guidance for drainage procedures. Hence, this paper aims to review the updated knowledge on CEUS compared with CT and MRI for the evaluation of RT renal transplant complications; advantages, limitations, and possible recommendations are provided.
CEUS
Color-Doppler-US
US
complications
renal transplant
Contrast Media
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Postoperative Complications
Quality of Life
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Kidney Diseases
Kidney Transplantation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/542151
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