Male varicocele and pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) are common pathologies with high predominance in young patients, having a high impact on the quality of life and infertility. Lately, the use of different endovascular embolization techniques, with various embolizing agents, shows good technical results and clinical outcomes. With the aim of presenting the "state of the art" of endovascular techniques for the treatment of male varicocele and PCS, and to discuss the performance of the different embolic agents proposed, we conducted an extensive analysis of the relevant literature and we reported and discussed the results of original studies and previous meta-analyses, providing an updated guide on this topic to clinicians and interventional radiologists. We have also underlined the technical aspects for the benefit of those who approach this type of interventional treatment. Our review suggests promising results in both the endovascular embolic treatment of male varicocele and PCS; for varicocele, a success rate of between 70% and 100% and a recurrence rate of up to 16% is reported, while for PCS it has been found that technical success is achieved in almost all cases of endovascular treatment, with a highly variable recurrence rate based on reports. Complications are overall rather rare and are represented by periprocedural pain, migration of embolic media and vascular perforations: severe adverse events have been reported very rarely.

Liquid and Solid Embolic Agents in Gonadal Veins

Distefano, Giulio;Palermo, Monica;Vacirca, Francesco;Palmucci, Stefano;Basile, Antonio
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Male varicocele and pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) are common pathologies with high predominance in young patients, having a high impact on the quality of life and infertility. Lately, the use of different endovascular embolization techniques, with various embolizing agents, shows good technical results and clinical outcomes. With the aim of presenting the "state of the art" of endovascular techniques for the treatment of male varicocele and PCS, and to discuss the performance of the different embolic agents proposed, we conducted an extensive analysis of the relevant literature and we reported and discussed the results of original studies and previous meta-analyses, providing an updated guide on this topic to clinicians and interventional radiologists. We have also underlined the technical aspects for the benefit of those who approach this type of interventional treatment. Our review suggests promising results in both the endovascular embolic treatment of male varicocele and PCS; for varicocele, a success rate of between 70% and 100% and a recurrence rate of up to 16% is reported, while for PCS it has been found that technical success is achieved in almost all cases of endovascular treatment, with a highly variable recurrence rate based on reports. Complications are overall rather rare and are represented by periprocedural pain, migration of embolic media and vascular perforations: severe adverse events have been reported very rarely.
embolic agent
interventional radiology
pelvic congestion syndrome
varicocele
vein embolization
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/542188
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