The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; NOS2) and derived NO in various cancers was reported to exert pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects depending on the levels of expression and the tumor types. In humans, the breast cancer level of iNOS was reported to be overexpressed, to exhibit pro-tumorigenic activities, and to be of prognostic significance. Likewise, the expression of the oncogenes HER2, BRCA1, and BRCA2 has been associated with malignancy. The interrelationship between the expression of these protooncogenes and oncogenes and the expression of iNOS is not clear. We have hypothesized that there exist cross-talk signaling pathways between the breast cancer protooncogenes, the iNOS axis, and iNOS-mediated NO mutations of these protooncogenes into oncogenes. We review the molecular regulation of the expression of the protooncogenes in breast cancer and their interrelationships with iNOS expression and activities. In addition, we discuss the roles of iNOS, HER2, BRCA1/2, and NO metabolism in the pathophysiology of cancer stem cells. Bioinformatic analyses have been performed and have found suggested molecular alterations responsible for breast cancer aggressiveness. These include the association of BRCA1/2 mutations and HER2 amplifications with the dysregulation of the NOS pathway. We propose that future studies should be undertaken to investigate the regulatory mechanisms underlying the expression of iNOS and various breast cancer oncogenes, with the aim of identifying new therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancers that are refractory to current treatments.

The Breast Cancer Protooncogenes HER2, BRCA1 and BRCA2 and Their Regulation by the iNOS/NOS2 Axis

Vivarelli, Silvia;Falzone, Luca;Libra, Massimo;
2022-01-01

Abstract

The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; NOS2) and derived NO in various cancers was reported to exert pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects depending on the levels of expression and the tumor types. In humans, the breast cancer level of iNOS was reported to be overexpressed, to exhibit pro-tumorigenic activities, and to be of prognostic significance. Likewise, the expression of the oncogenes HER2, BRCA1, and BRCA2 has been associated with malignancy. The interrelationship between the expression of these protooncogenes and oncogenes and the expression of iNOS is not clear. We have hypothesized that there exist cross-talk signaling pathways between the breast cancer protooncogenes, the iNOS axis, and iNOS-mediated NO mutations of these protooncogenes into oncogenes. We review the molecular regulation of the expression of the protooncogenes in breast cancer and their interrelationships with iNOS expression and activities. In addition, we discuss the roles of iNOS, HER2, BRCA1/2, and NO metabolism in the pathophysiology of cancer stem cells. Bioinformatic analyses have been performed and have found suggested molecular alterations responsible for breast cancer aggressiveness. These include the association of BRCA1/2 mutations and HER2 amplifications with the dysregulation of the NOS pathway. We propose that future studies should be undertaken to investigate the regulatory mechanisms underlying the expression of iNOS and various breast cancer oncogenes, with the aim of identifying new therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancers that are refractory to current treatments.
BRCA1
BRCA2
HER2
TNBC
breast cancer
iNOS/NOS2
nitric oxide
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/542386
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