Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid that binds and activates five distinct receptor subtypes, S1P1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, S1P5, widely expressed in different cells, tissues and organs. In the cardiovascular system these receptors have been extensively studied, but no drug acting on them has been approved so far for treating cardiovascular diseases. In contrast, a number of S1P receptor agonists are approved as immunomodulators, mainly for multiple sclerosis, because of their action on lymphocyte trafficking. This chapter summarizes the available information on S1P receptors in the cardiovascular system and discusses their potential for treating cardiovascular conditions and/or their role on the clinical pharmacology of drugs so far approved for non-cardiovascular conditions. Basic research has recently produced data useful to understand the molecular pharmacology of S1P and S1P receptors, regarding biased agonism, S1P storage, release and vehiculation and chaperoning by lipoproteins, paracrine actions, intracellular non-receptorial S1P actions. On the other hand, the approval of fingolimod and newer generation S1P receptor ligands as immunomodulators, provides information on a number of clinical observations on the impact of these drugs on cardiovascular system which need to be integrated with preclinical data. S1P receptors are potential targets for prevention and treatment of major cardiovascular conditions, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke.
Spampinato, Simona Federica
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