Microglia represent the resident immune system in the brain. They mediate neuroinflammatory processes and have been described as important regulators of homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Among several players and mechanisms contributing to microglial function in inflammation, ATP and glutamate have been shown to be involved in microgliosis. In this study, we focused on receptor subtypes that respond to these neurotransmitters, purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor and metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor. We found that both receptors are functionally expressed in a murine microglia cell line, BV2 cells, and we performed patch-clamp experiments to measure purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor ion flux in control condition and after metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor activation. The selective purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor agonist, 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5'-triphosphate (BzATP, 100 μM), elicited a robust current that was prevented by the selective purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 (10 μM). When BV2 cells were acutely stimulated with the selective metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 agonist, (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG, 200 μM), purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor current was increased. This positive modulation was prevented by the selective metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor antagonist 3-((2-Methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP, 1 μM). Moreover, nitric oxide synthesis elicited by purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor activation was enhanced by metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor co-stimulation. Taken together, our results suggest an important crosstalk between ATP and glutamate in inflammation. Pro-inflammatory effects mediated by purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor might be exacerbated by simultaneous exposure of microglia to ATP and glutamate, suggesting new pharmacological targets to modulate neuroinflammation.

Purinergic ionotropic P2X7 and metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptors crosstalk influences pro-inflammatory conditions in microglia

Chisari, Mariangela
Primo
Conceptualization
;
Barraco, Michele
Investigation
;
Bucolo, Claudio
Visualization
;
Ciranna, Lucia
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Sortino, Maria Angela
Supervision
2022-01-01

Abstract

Microglia represent the resident immune system in the brain. They mediate neuroinflammatory processes and have been described as important regulators of homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Among several players and mechanisms contributing to microglial function in inflammation, ATP and glutamate have been shown to be involved in microgliosis. In this study, we focused on receptor subtypes that respond to these neurotransmitters, purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor and metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor. We found that both receptors are functionally expressed in a murine microglia cell line, BV2 cells, and we performed patch-clamp experiments to measure purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor ion flux in control condition and after metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor activation. The selective purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor agonist, 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5'-triphosphate (BzATP, 100 μM), elicited a robust current that was prevented by the selective purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 (10 μM). When BV2 cells were acutely stimulated with the selective metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 agonist, (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG, 200 μM), purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor current was increased. This positive modulation was prevented by the selective metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor antagonist 3-((2-Methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP, 1 μM). Moreover, nitric oxide synthesis elicited by purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor activation was enhanced by metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor co-stimulation. Taken together, our results suggest an important crosstalk between ATP and glutamate in inflammation. Pro-inflammatory effects mediated by purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor might be exacerbated by simultaneous exposure of microglia to ATP and glutamate, suggesting new pharmacological targets to modulate neuroinflammation.
Inflammation
Metabotropic glutamate mGlu(5) receptor
Microglia
Nitric oxide
Patch-clamp
Purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/542629
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