In this study, we investigated whether treatment with palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin (PEA-LUT) leads to improvement in the quantitative or qualitative measures of olfactory dysfunction or relief from mental clouding in patients affected by long COVID. Patients with long COVID olfactory dysfunction were allocated to different groups based on the presence ("previously treated") or absence ("naive") of prior exposure to olfactory training. Patients were then randomized to receive PEA-LUT alone or in combination with olfactory training. Olfactory function and memory were assessed at monthly intervals using self-report measures and quantitative thresholds. A total of 69 patients (43 women, 26 men) with an age average of 40.6 + 10.5 were recruited. PEA-LUT therapy was associated with a significant improvement in validated odor identification scores at the baseline versus each subsequent month; assessment at 3 months showed an average improvement of 10.7 + 2.6, CI 95%: 6-14 (p < 0.0001). The overall prevalence of parosmia was 79.7% (55 patients), with a significant improvement from the baseline to 3 months (p < 0.0001), namely in 31 patients from the Naive 1 group (72%), 15 from the Naive 2 group (93.7%), and 9 from the remaining group (90%). Overall, mental clouding was detected in 37.7% (26 subjects) of the cases, with a reduction in severity from the baseline to three months (p = 0.02), namely in 15 patients from the Naive 1 group (34.8%), 7 from the Naive 2 group (43.7%), and 4 from the remaining group (40%). Conclusions. In patients with long COVID and chronic olfactory loss, a regimen including oral PEA-LUT and olfactory training ameliorated olfactory dysfunction and memory. Further investigations are necessary to discern biomarkers, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.

Effect of Ultra-Micronized Palmitoylethanolamide and Luteolin on Olfaction and Memory in Patients with Long COVID: Results of a Longitudinal Study

Arianna Di Stadio
2022-01-01

Abstract

In this study, we investigated whether treatment with palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin (PEA-LUT) leads to improvement in the quantitative or qualitative measures of olfactory dysfunction or relief from mental clouding in patients affected by long COVID. Patients with long COVID olfactory dysfunction were allocated to different groups based on the presence ("previously treated") or absence ("naive") of prior exposure to olfactory training. Patients were then randomized to receive PEA-LUT alone or in combination with olfactory training. Olfactory function and memory were assessed at monthly intervals using self-report measures and quantitative thresholds. A total of 69 patients (43 women, 26 men) with an age average of 40.6 + 10.5 were recruited. PEA-LUT therapy was associated with a significant improvement in validated odor identification scores at the baseline versus each subsequent month; assessment at 3 months showed an average improvement of 10.7 + 2.6, CI 95%: 6-14 (p < 0.0001). The overall prevalence of parosmia was 79.7% (55 patients), with a significant improvement from the baseline to 3 months (p < 0.0001), namely in 31 patients from the Naive 1 group (72%), 15 from the Naive 2 group (93.7%), and 9 from the remaining group (90%). Overall, mental clouding was detected in 37.7% (26 subjects) of the cases, with a reduction in severity from the baseline to three months (p = 0.02), namely in 15 patients from the Naive 1 group (34.8%), 7 from the Naive 2 group (43.7%), and 4 from the remaining group (40%). Conclusions. In patients with long COVID and chronic olfactory loss, a regimen including oral PEA-LUT and olfactory training ameliorated olfactory dysfunction and memory. Further investigations are necessary to discern biomarkers, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.
COVID-19
PEA-LUT
anosmia
brain fog
hyposmia
long-haul COVID syndrome
lutein
memory
mental clouding
neuroinflammation
olfactory threshold
olfactory training
palmitoylethanolamide
parosmia
post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC)
qualitative smell disorders
smell disorders
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/544653
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact