Intravascular lymphoma is a form of lymphoid malignancy characterized by neoplastic cells growing almost exclusively within the lumina of small- to medium-sized blood vessels. Most cases are of B-cell origin with rare cases of natural killer or T-cell lineage. Extranodal sites are affected, mainly the skin and central nervous system, although any organ may be involved. Intravascular NK/T-cell lymphoma deserves special attention because of its clinicopathologic features and the need for adequate immunophenotyping combined with clonality test for a proper diagnosis. Moreover, intravascular NK/T-cell lymphoma is strongly linked to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), which is considered to play a role in tumorigenesis and to be responsible for the aggressive behavior of the disease. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on this rare lymphoma and, in particular, the most recent advances about its molecular landscape. The main distinguishing features with other EBV-related entities, such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, EBV-positive primary nodal T/NK-cell lymphoma, and aggressive NK-cell leukemia, are discussed to help pathologists obtain the correct diagnosis and consequently develop an adequate and prompt therapy response.

Intravascular NK/T-Cell Lymphoma: What We Know about This Diagnostically Challenging, Aggressive Disease

Broggi G.;Caltabiano R.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Intravascular lymphoma is a form of lymphoid malignancy characterized by neoplastic cells growing almost exclusively within the lumina of small- to medium-sized blood vessels. Most cases are of B-cell origin with rare cases of natural killer or T-cell lineage. Extranodal sites are affected, mainly the skin and central nervous system, although any organ may be involved. Intravascular NK/T-cell lymphoma deserves special attention because of its clinicopathologic features and the need for adequate immunophenotyping combined with clonality test for a proper diagnosis. Moreover, intravascular NK/T-cell lymphoma is strongly linked to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), which is considered to play a role in tumorigenesis and to be responsible for the aggressive behavior of the disease. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on this rare lymphoma and, in particular, the most recent advances about its molecular landscape. The main distinguishing features with other EBV-related entities, such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, EBV-positive primary nodal T/NK-cell lymphoma, and aggressive NK-cell leukemia, are discussed to help pathologists obtain the correct diagnosis and consequently develop an adequate and prompt therapy response.
aggressive NK-cell leukemia
EBV-positive primary nodal T/NK-cell lymphoma
Epstein–Barr virus
extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma
intravascular NK/T-cell lymphoma
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/545207
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