Simple SummaryPercutaneous thermal ablation (PTA) is a validated treatment for small (<3 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multifocality is usually reported as a strong pejorative factor. Yet, the current literature lacks data on the influence in Western patients of HCC nodule numbers on recurrence and survival after PTA. From a prospective cohort of patients who underwent PTA for <3 cm HCC, we retrospectively compared recurrence and survival, according to the number of nodules. We found that bi- and trifocal HCC significantly increased the risk of distant recurrence, especially very early (<6 months) distant recurrence. Overall survival after PTA of trifocal HCC proved to be significantly below what was expected after a curative treatment, ranging between that of BCLC A and of BCLC B patients. Liver transplantation should certainly be considered earlier in this sub-population. Reasonable hopes come from adjuvant/neoadjuvant trials based on immunotherapies alone or in combination.Multifocality is usually reported as a pejorative factor after percutaneous thermal ablation (PTA) of HCC but little is known in Western series. Recurrence and survival were extracted from a prospective database of all patients who underwent PTA for <= 3 cm HCC. From January 2015 to April 2020, we analyzed 281 patients with unifocal (n = 216), bifocal (n = 46) and trifocal (n = 16) HCC. PTA of bi- and trifocal HCC resulted in a high risk of very early (<6 months) distant recurrence (38.8% and 50%, respectively). Median RFS was 23.3 months (95% CI:18.6-30.4), 7.7 months (95% CI:5.1-11.43, p = 0.002) and 5.2 months (95% CI:3-12.3, p = 0.015), respectively, for uni-, bi- and trifocal HCC groups. In a multivariate analysis, both bifocal (HR = 2.46, p < 0.001) and trifocal (HR = 2.70, p = 0.021) vs. unifocal HCC independently predicted shorter RFS. Median OS in trifocal HCC group was 30.3 months (95 CI:19.3-not reached). Trifocal vs. unifocal HCC independently predicted shorter OS (HR = 3.30, p = 0.008), whereas bifocal vs. unifocal HCC did not (p = 0.27). Naive patient (HR = 0.42, p = 0.007), AFP > 100 ng/mL (HR = 3.03, p = 0.008), MELD > 9 (HR = 2.84, p = 0.001) and steatotic HCC (HR = 0.12, p = 0.038) were also independent predictors of OS. In conclusion, multifocal HCCs in a Western population have a dramatically increased risk of distant recurrence. OS after PTA of trifocal HCC is significantly below what was expected after a curative treatment.

Uni-, Bi- or Trifocal Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Western Patients: Recurrence and Survival after Percutaneous Thermal Ablation

Gozzo, Cecilia;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Simple SummaryPercutaneous thermal ablation (PTA) is a validated treatment for small (<3 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multifocality is usually reported as a strong pejorative factor. Yet, the current literature lacks data on the influence in Western patients of HCC nodule numbers on recurrence and survival after PTA. From a prospective cohort of patients who underwent PTA for <3 cm HCC, we retrospectively compared recurrence and survival, according to the number of nodules. We found that bi- and trifocal HCC significantly increased the risk of distant recurrence, especially very early (<6 months) distant recurrence. Overall survival after PTA of trifocal HCC proved to be significantly below what was expected after a curative treatment, ranging between that of BCLC A and of BCLC B patients. Liver transplantation should certainly be considered earlier in this sub-population. Reasonable hopes come from adjuvant/neoadjuvant trials based on immunotherapies alone or in combination.Multifocality is usually reported as a pejorative factor after percutaneous thermal ablation (PTA) of HCC but little is known in Western series. Recurrence and survival were extracted from a prospective database of all patients who underwent PTA for <= 3 cm HCC. From January 2015 to April 2020, we analyzed 281 patients with unifocal (n = 216), bifocal (n = 46) and trifocal (n = 16) HCC. PTA of bi- and trifocal HCC resulted in a high risk of very early (<6 months) distant recurrence (38.8% and 50%, respectively). Median RFS was 23.3 months (95% CI:18.6-30.4), 7.7 months (95% CI:5.1-11.43, p = 0.002) and 5.2 months (95% CI:3-12.3, p = 0.015), respectively, for uni-, bi- and trifocal HCC groups. In a multivariate analysis, both bifocal (HR = 2.46, p < 0.001) and trifocal (HR = 2.70, p = 0.021) vs. unifocal HCC independently predicted shorter RFS. Median OS in trifocal HCC group was 30.3 months (95 CI:19.3-not reached). Trifocal vs. unifocal HCC independently predicted shorter OS (HR = 3.30, p = 0.008), whereas bifocal vs. unifocal HCC did not (p = 0.27). Naive patient (HR = 0.42, p = 0.007), AFP > 100 ng/mL (HR = 3.03, p = 0.008), MELD > 9 (HR = 2.84, p = 0.001) and steatotic HCC (HR = 0.12, p = 0.038) were also independent predictors of OS. In conclusion, multifocal HCCs in a Western population have a dramatically increased risk of distant recurrence. OS after PTA of trifocal HCC is significantly below what was expected after a curative treatment.
liver cancer
metastasis
microwave ablation
prognosis
radiofrequency ablation
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/545789
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 2
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact