The infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy is a common gas sensing technique used for research activities to perform continuous measurement of gas concentrations. Few research works have investigated how to collect data and obtain reliable measurements in open and semi-open dairy houses for gas concentration estimation. In the present study, measurements of ammonia (NH3) concentrations were carried out in a semi-open free-stall dairy barn by using a commercial photo-acoustic spectroscopy system (INNOVA by LumaSense Technologies A/S, Denmark), widely used for scientific purposes. Several repetitions for each sampling location (SLs) were investigated in in-field conditions to study the variability of the measurement in each repetition. Based on acquired data, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) were carried out for different groups of data. The achieved results showed that the measurement strategy depended on the number of repetitions with effect on the variability of each measurement. In detail, the number of repetitions performed had a significant influence on data collection (P < 0.001). From the outcomes of the research, it is recommended to: perform three repetitions, or at most, four repetitions for each SLs; exclude the first repetition from the data analyses because it reduces measurement variability; consider the mean value of the second and third repetitions as the NH3 concentration value determined at each SL; up to four repetitions (that would take a five-minutes acquisition) are recommended because measurement changed in time when a higher number of repetitions were carried out. The measurement design should be planned based on the number of repetitions and the number of SLs in order to perform more than one SL measurement cycle within an hour. Since the measurement cycles are strictly related to the number of SLs in the barn, they depend on the barn typology and dimensions. The application of a specific measurement strategy is valuable to obtain reliable data that could be used in the research activities focused on estimation of gas concentrations for monitoring air quality, improving animal welfare, assessing mitigation strategies, or estimating emissions in open and semi-open free-stall dairy barns.

Measuring ammonia concentrations by an infrared photo-acoustic multi-gas analyser in an open dairy barn: Repetitions planning strategy

Provvidenza Rita D'Urso
Primo
;
Claudia Arcidiacono
Secondo
;
Francesca Valenti;Giovanni Cascone
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

The infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy is a common gas sensing technique used for research activities to perform continuous measurement of gas concentrations. Few research works have investigated how to collect data and obtain reliable measurements in open and semi-open dairy houses for gas concentration estimation. In the present study, measurements of ammonia (NH3) concentrations were carried out in a semi-open free-stall dairy barn by using a commercial photo-acoustic spectroscopy system (INNOVA by LumaSense Technologies A/S, Denmark), widely used for scientific purposes. Several repetitions for each sampling location (SLs) were investigated in in-field conditions to study the variability of the measurement in each repetition. Based on acquired data, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) were carried out for different groups of data. The achieved results showed that the measurement strategy depended on the number of repetitions with effect on the variability of each measurement. In detail, the number of repetitions performed had a significant influence on data collection (P < 0.001). From the outcomes of the research, it is recommended to: perform three repetitions, or at most, four repetitions for each SLs; exclude the first repetition from the data analyses because it reduces measurement variability; consider the mean value of the second and third repetitions as the NH3 concentration value determined at each SL; up to four repetitions (that would take a five-minutes acquisition) are recommended because measurement changed in time when a higher number of repetitions were carried out. The measurement design should be planned based on the number of repetitions and the number of SLs in order to perform more than one SL measurement cycle within an hour. Since the measurement cycles are strictly related to the number of SLs in the barn, they depend on the barn typology and dimensions. The application of a specific measurement strategy is valuable to obtain reliable data that could be used in the research activities focused on estimation of gas concentrations for monitoring air quality, improving animal welfare, assessing mitigation strategies, or estimating emissions in open and semi-open free-stall dairy barns.
Ammonia; Gas concentrations; Measurement strategy; Open-sided dairy barn; Repetitions
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/546155
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