: In the biomedical field, the demand for the development of broad-spectrum biomaterials able to inhibit bacterial growth is constantly increasing. Chronic infections represent the most serious and devastating complication related to the use of biomaterials. This is particularly relevant in the orthopaedic field, where infections can lead to implant loosening, arthrodesis, amputations and sometimes death. Antibiotics are the conventional approach for implanted-associated infections, but they have the limitation of increasing antibiotic resistance, a critical worldwide healthcare issue. In this context, the development of anti-infective biomaterials and infection-resistant surfaces can be considered the more effective strategy to prevent the implant colonisation and biofilm formation by bacteria, so reducing the occurrence of implant-associated infections. In the last years, inorganic nanostructures have become extremely appealing for chemical modifications or coatings of Ti surfaces, since they do not generate antibiotic resistance issues and are featured by superior stability, durability, and full compatibility with the sterilization process. In this work, we present a simple, rapid, and cheap chemical nanofunctionalization of titanium (Ti) scaffolds with colloidal ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), prepared by a sol-gel method, exhibiting antibacterial activity. ZnO NPs and ZnxMn(1-x)O NPs formation with a size around 10-20nm and band gap values of 3.42 eV and 3.38 eV, respectively, have been displayed by characterization studies. UV-Vis, fluorescence, and Raman investigation suggested that Mn ions acting as dopants in the ZnO lattice. Ti scaffolds have been functionalized through dip coating, obtaining ZnO@Ti and ZnxMn(1-x)O@Ti biomaterials characterized by a continuous nanostructured film. ZnO@Ti and ZnxMn(1-x)O@Ti displayed an enhanced antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacterial strains, compared to NPs in solution with better performance of ZnxMn(1-x)O@Ti respect to ZnO@Ti. Notably, it has been observed that ZnxMn(1-x)O@Ti scaffolds reach a complete eradication for S. aureus and 90 % of reduction for P. aeruginosa. This can be attributed to Zn2+ and Mn2+ metal ions release (as observed by ICP MS experiments) that is also maintained over time (72 h). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reported in the literature describing ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO NPs nanofunctionalized Ti scaffolds with improved antibacterial performance, paving the way for the realization of new hybrid implantable devices through a low-cost process, compatible with the biotechnological industrial chain method.

Structural and antibacterial studies of novel ZnO and ZnxMn(1-x)O nanostructured titanium scaffolds for biomedical applications

Calabrese, Giovanna;Morganti, Dario;Fazio, Enza;Neri, Fortunato;Leonardi, Antonio Alessio;Faro, Maria Josè Lo;Conoci, Sabrina
2023-01-01

Abstract

: In the biomedical field, the demand for the development of broad-spectrum biomaterials able to inhibit bacterial growth is constantly increasing. Chronic infections represent the most serious and devastating complication related to the use of biomaterials. This is particularly relevant in the orthopaedic field, where infections can lead to implant loosening, arthrodesis, amputations and sometimes death. Antibiotics are the conventional approach for implanted-associated infections, but they have the limitation of increasing antibiotic resistance, a critical worldwide healthcare issue. In this context, the development of anti-infective biomaterials and infection-resistant surfaces can be considered the more effective strategy to prevent the implant colonisation and biofilm formation by bacteria, so reducing the occurrence of implant-associated infections. In the last years, inorganic nanostructures have become extremely appealing for chemical modifications or coatings of Ti surfaces, since they do not generate antibiotic resistance issues and are featured by superior stability, durability, and full compatibility with the sterilization process. In this work, we present a simple, rapid, and cheap chemical nanofunctionalization of titanium (Ti) scaffolds with colloidal ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), prepared by a sol-gel method, exhibiting antibacterial activity. ZnO NPs and ZnxMn(1-x)O NPs formation with a size around 10-20nm and band gap values of 3.42 eV and 3.38 eV, respectively, have been displayed by characterization studies. UV-Vis, fluorescence, and Raman investigation suggested that Mn ions acting as dopants in the ZnO lattice. Ti scaffolds have been functionalized through dip coating, obtaining ZnO@Ti and ZnxMn(1-x)O@Ti biomaterials characterized by a continuous nanostructured film. ZnO@Ti and ZnxMn(1-x)O@Ti displayed an enhanced antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacterial strains, compared to NPs in solution with better performance of ZnxMn(1-x)O@Ti respect to ZnO@Ti. Notably, it has been observed that ZnxMn(1-x)O@Ti scaffolds reach a complete eradication for S. aureus and 90 % of reduction for P. aeruginosa. This can be attributed to Zn2+ and Mn2+ metal ions release (as observed by ICP MS experiments) that is also maintained over time (72 h). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reported in the literature describing ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO NPs nanofunctionalized Ti scaffolds with improved antibacterial performance, paving the way for the realization of new hybrid implantable devices through a low-cost process, compatible with the biotechnological industrial chain method.
2023
Antibacterial activity
Implantable-device
Nanomaterials
Titanium scaffolds
Zn(x)Mn((1−x))O
ZnO
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/548550
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