This study investigated the DNA damage and apoptosis in colon cancer cells HCT-116 and Caco-2 induced by engineered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) (60 nm) and titanium dioxide food additive E171. MTT assays showed that both chemical forms significantly reduced cancer cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In particular the food additive E171 induced a pronounced inhibitory effect on the growth of HCT-116 and Caco-2 cell lines (E171 IC50: 3.45 mg/L for HTC-116 and 1.88 mg/L Caco-2; TiO2-NPs 60 nm IC50: 41.1 mg/L for HTC-116 and 14.3 mg/L for Caco-2). A low level of genotoxicity was observed in Caco-2 cells, especially when treated with TiO2 60 nm. Western blot analysis showed that HCT116 and Caco-2 treated cells did not overexpress apoptotic markers such as cleaved Caspase 3 and cleaved Parp. Moreover, further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that TiO2-NPs and E171 did not promote the expression of Bax or downregulation of Bcl-2, nor did they increase the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The assay data provide clear evidence that TiO2 can cause DNA damage but does not induce apoptosis or decrease long-term cell proliferation. In addition, the results show that E171 has a slightly higher level of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. This suggests that exposure to E171 may be hazardous to health and that further research on biological effects is needed to promote safer practices in the use of this compound.

DNA Damage and Apoptosis as In-Vitro Effect Biomarkers of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and the Food Additive E171 Toxicity in Colon Cancer Cells: HCT-116 and Caco-2

Ferrante M.
Primo
;
Grasso A.
Secondo
;
Salemi R.;Libra M.;Tomasello B.;Fiore M.;Copat C.
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

This study investigated the DNA damage and apoptosis in colon cancer cells HCT-116 and Caco-2 induced by engineered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) (60 nm) and titanium dioxide food additive E171. MTT assays showed that both chemical forms significantly reduced cancer cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In particular the food additive E171 induced a pronounced inhibitory effect on the growth of HCT-116 and Caco-2 cell lines (E171 IC50: 3.45 mg/L for HTC-116 and 1.88 mg/L Caco-2; TiO2-NPs 60 nm IC50: 41.1 mg/L for HTC-116 and 14.3 mg/L for Caco-2). A low level of genotoxicity was observed in Caco-2 cells, especially when treated with TiO2 60 nm. Western blot analysis showed that HCT116 and Caco-2 treated cells did not overexpress apoptotic markers such as cleaved Caspase 3 and cleaved Parp. Moreover, further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that TiO2-NPs and E171 did not promote the expression of Bax or downregulation of Bcl-2, nor did they increase the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The assay data provide clear evidence that TiO2 can cause DNA damage but does not induce apoptosis or decrease long-term cell proliferation. In addition, the results show that E171 has a slightly higher level of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. This suggests that exposure to E171 may be hazardous to health and that further research on biological effects is needed to promote safer practices in the use of this compound.
2023
Caco-2
E171
HCT-116
TiO2
apoptosis
genotoxicity
metallic nanoparticles
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/550618
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