The rate at which obesity is becoming an epidemic in many countries is alarming. Obese individuals have a high risk of developing elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Additionally, glaucoma is a disease of epidemic proportions. It is characterized by neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation with optic neuropathy and the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). On the other hand, there is growing interest in microbiome dysbiosis, particularly in the gut, which has been widely acknowledged to play a prominent role in the etiology of metabolic illnesses such as obesity. Recently, studies have begun to highlight the fact that microbiome dysbiosis could play a critical role in the onset and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases, as well as in the development and progression of several ocular disorders. In obese individuals, gut microbiome dysbiosis can induce endotoxemia and systemic inflammation by causing intestinal barrier malfunction. As a result, bacteria and their metabolites could be delivered via the bloodstream or mesenteric lymphatic vessels to ocular regions at the level of the retina and optic nerve, causing tissue degeneration and neuroinflammation. Nowadays, there is preliminary evidence for the existence of brain and intraocular microbiomes. The altered microbiome of the gut could perturb the resident brain–ocular microbiome ecosystem which, in turn, could exacerbate the local inflammation. All these processes, finally, could lead to the death of RGC and neurodegeneration. The purpose of this literature review is to explore the recent evidence on the role of gut microbiome dysbiosis and related inflammation as common mechanisms underlying obesity and glaucoma

Microbiome Dysbiosis: A Pathological Mechanism at the Intersection of Obesity and Glaucoma

Pezzino S.;La Greca G.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The rate at which obesity is becoming an epidemic in many countries is alarming. Obese individuals have a high risk of developing elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Additionally, glaucoma is a disease of epidemic proportions. It is characterized by neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation with optic neuropathy and the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). On the other hand, there is growing interest in microbiome dysbiosis, particularly in the gut, which has been widely acknowledged to play a prominent role in the etiology of metabolic illnesses such as obesity. Recently, studies have begun to highlight the fact that microbiome dysbiosis could play a critical role in the onset and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases, as well as in the development and progression of several ocular disorders. In obese individuals, gut microbiome dysbiosis can induce endotoxemia and systemic inflammation by causing intestinal barrier malfunction. As a result, bacteria and their metabolites could be delivered via the bloodstream or mesenteric lymphatic vessels to ocular regions at the level of the retina and optic nerve, causing tissue degeneration and neuroinflammation. Nowadays, there is preliminary evidence for the existence of brain and intraocular microbiomes. The altered microbiome of the gut could perturb the resident brain–ocular microbiome ecosystem which, in turn, could exacerbate the local inflammation. All these processes, finally, could lead to the death of RGC and neurodegeneration. The purpose of this literature review is to explore the recent evidence on the role of gut microbiome dysbiosis and related inflammation as common mechanisms underlying obesity and glaucoma
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/550644
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