: Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) have many adverse health effects due to bioaccumulation capability and their long persistence in the environment. As a renewable water source, the effluents of municipal wastewater treatment systems have been used to irrigate agricultural products widely. However, the evidence on the bioaccumulation of PTEs in crops irrigated with these effluents is still scarce, with no available study in low and middle-income countries. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the PTEs concentration in the soil and crops irrigated with effluents of Sabzevar wastewater treatment plant and the related health risk by that. The clustered method was used to determine the soil and craps samples. Seventy cumulative samples were randomly prepared in summer and autumn 2016 and 2017 from crops, soil and effluent. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure PTEs. The health risk of exposure to PTEs was assessed using Monte Carlo simulation technique. Kruskal Wallis test and Posthoc Tukey HSD test were used to assess the mean difference of PTEs between soil, effluent and crops as well as between crops together. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) magnitude order in different crop samples was Cd > Sr > Cu > Pb > Zn > Co > As > Cr > Ni, respectively. The Cd accumulation in Sugar beet plant was significantly higher than in other samples. The highest hazard quotient (HQ) based on single PTEs was observed for As (mineral) (mean: 5.62 × 10-1 and percentile 95th: 2.13) in Okra. Regarding total HQ (THQ), the highest and lowest mean (percentile 95th) values were 1.50 (3.22) and 2.40 × 10-1 (4.01 × 10-1) for Okra and Watermelon, respectively. The mean concentrations of Co, Cr, Ni and Zn were significantly higher in crops compared to soil and influent samples. Posthoc tests indicated that the concentration of PTEs between investigated crop samples were not statistically significant different (p > 0.05). Overall, our study suggested that irrigation with the effluent of stabilization pond wastewater treatment system exerts a potential health risk due to bioaccumulation of PTEs in crops.

Bioaccumulation and health risk assessment of exposure to potentially toxic elements by consuming agricultural products irrigated with wastewater effluents

Cristaldi, A.;Mancini, G.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

: Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) have many adverse health effects due to bioaccumulation capability and their long persistence in the environment. As a renewable water source, the effluents of municipal wastewater treatment systems have been used to irrigate agricultural products widely. However, the evidence on the bioaccumulation of PTEs in crops irrigated with these effluents is still scarce, with no available study in low and middle-income countries. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the PTEs concentration in the soil and crops irrigated with effluents of Sabzevar wastewater treatment plant and the related health risk by that. The clustered method was used to determine the soil and craps samples. Seventy cumulative samples were randomly prepared in summer and autumn 2016 and 2017 from crops, soil and effluent. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure PTEs. The health risk of exposure to PTEs was assessed using Monte Carlo simulation technique. Kruskal Wallis test and Posthoc Tukey HSD test were used to assess the mean difference of PTEs between soil, effluent and crops as well as between crops together. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) magnitude order in different crop samples was Cd > Sr > Cu > Pb > Zn > Co > As > Cr > Ni, respectively. The Cd accumulation in Sugar beet plant was significantly higher than in other samples. The highest hazard quotient (HQ) based on single PTEs was observed for As (mineral) (mean: 5.62 × 10-1 and percentile 95th: 2.13) in Okra. Regarding total HQ (THQ), the highest and lowest mean (percentile 95th) values were 1.50 (3.22) and 2.40 × 10-1 (4.01 × 10-1) for Okra and Watermelon, respectively. The mean concentrations of Co, Cr, Ni and Zn were significantly higher in crops compared to soil and influent samples. Posthoc tests indicated that the concentration of PTEs between investigated crop samples were not statistically significant different (p > 0.05). Overall, our study suggested that irrigation with the effluent of stabilization pond wastewater treatment system exerts a potential health risk due to bioaccumulation of PTEs in crops.
2022
Agricultural products
Heavy metals
Noncarcinogeic risk
Wastewater
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Bioaccumulation and health risk assessment of exposure to potentially toxic elements by consuming agricultural products irrigated with wastewater effluents.pdf

solo utenti autorizzati

Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: NON PUBBLICO - Accesso privato/ristretto
Dimensione 2.99 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.99 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/551425
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 11
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 8
social impact