Attackers may attempt exploiting Internet of Things (IoT) devices to operate them unduly as well as to gather personal data of the legitimate device owners’. Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing (VAPT) sessions help to verify the effectiveness of the adopted security measures. However, VAPT over IoT devices, namely VAPT targeted at IoT devices, is an open research challenge due to the variety of target technologies and to the creativity it may require. Therefore, this article aims at guiding penetration testers to conduct VAPT sessions over IoT devices by means of a new cyber Kill Chain (KC) termed PETIoT. Several practical applications of PETIoT confirm that it is general, while its main novelty lies in the combination of attack and defence steps. PETIoT is demonstrated on a relevant example, the best-selling IP camera on Amazon Italy, the TAPO C200 by TP-Link, assuming an attacker who sits on the same network as the device's in order to assess all the network interfaces of the device. Additional knowledge is generated in terms of three zero-day vulnerabilities found and practically exploited on the camera, one of these with High severity and the other two with Medium severity by the CVSS standard. These are camera Denial of Service (DoS), motion detection breach and video stream breach. The application of PETIoT culminates with the proof-of-concept of a home-made fix, based on an inexpensive Raspberry Pi 4 Model B device, for the last vulnerability. Ultimately, our responsible disclosure with the camera vendor led to the release of a firmware update that fixes all found vulnerabilities, confirming that PetIoT has valid impact in real-world scenarios.

PETIoT: PEnetration Testing the Internet of Things

Bella G.
;
Biondi P.;Bognanni S.;Esposito S.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Attackers may attempt exploiting Internet of Things (IoT) devices to operate them unduly as well as to gather personal data of the legitimate device owners’. Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing (VAPT) sessions help to verify the effectiveness of the adopted security measures. However, VAPT over IoT devices, namely VAPT targeted at IoT devices, is an open research challenge due to the variety of target technologies and to the creativity it may require. Therefore, this article aims at guiding penetration testers to conduct VAPT sessions over IoT devices by means of a new cyber Kill Chain (KC) termed PETIoT. Several practical applications of PETIoT confirm that it is general, while its main novelty lies in the combination of attack and defence steps. PETIoT is demonstrated on a relevant example, the best-selling IP camera on Amazon Italy, the TAPO C200 by TP-Link, assuming an attacker who sits on the same network as the device's in order to assess all the network interfaces of the device. Additional knowledge is generated in terms of three zero-day vulnerabilities found and practically exploited on the camera, one of these with High severity and the other two with Medium severity by the CVSS standard. These are camera Denial of Service (DoS), motion detection breach and video stream breach. The application of PETIoT culminates with the proof-of-concept of a home-made fix, based on an inexpensive Raspberry Pi 4 Model B device, for the last vulnerability. Ultimately, our responsible disclosure with the camera vendor led to the release of a firmware update that fixes all found vulnerabilities, confirming that PetIoT has valid impact in real-world scenarios.
2023
Attack
Cyber Kill Chain
Ethical hacking
Exploitation
Fix
Offensive security
VAPT
Vulnerability assessment
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
1-s2.0-S2542660523000306-main-petiot.pdf

accesso aperto

Dimensione 3.44 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
3.44 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/551924
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 4
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact