Introduction: Multifocality in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is a common event, ranging from 18% to 87%. Additional multiple foci are frequently very small and generally detected in pathology specimens. The mechanisms of intrathyroidal spread, and its correlation with age, gender, tumour size, and lymph node metastases remain unclear. Moreover, studies assessing the prognostic impact of PTC multifocal- ity have yielded non-univocal results. We aimed to evaluate the following: a) the histopathological and clinical characteristics associated with multifocal PTC; and b) the impact of multifocality on the long-term outcome.Material and methods: We analysed a consecutive series of 2814 PTC patients without evidence of microscopic extrathyroidal extension (T1a, T1b, and T2), all of whom had undergone total thyroidectomy and were followed-up (median 4.7 years) in our thyroid clinic. Females comprised 81.3% and males 18.7% (F/M = 4.4/1), with a median age at diagnosis of 45.0 years. Patients were subdivided into 2 groups: 72.7% unifocal tumour and 27.3% multifocal tumour. Post-surgical radioiodine ablation (RAI) (30-100 mCi of 131-I) was performed in 1425 (50.6%) patients. All patients were periodically followed with thyroglobulin and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies measurements and with neck ultrasonography under L-thyroxine therapy and subjected to additional radioiodine administration or another therapeutic measure if not cured.Results: Patients in the multifocal group were older (median age 46.4 vs. 44.5 years, respectively, p < 0.05) and presented a lower F/M ratio (F/M = 3.7/1 and 4.7/1; p = 0.01). T1a and T1b tumours showed no significant difference in multifocality rate whereas T2 tumours were less frequently multifocal (14.2% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.05). Multifocal tumours were more frequent in N1b (11.3% vs. 7.8%, p < 0.01) and less frequent in Nx (50.5% vs. 56.8%, p < 0.01), with no difference between the N0 and N1a groups. The clinical outcome was similar in the 2 group of patients (88.2 % in the unifocal group vs. 90.2% in the multifocal group).Conclusions: Multifocality is more frequent in older and male patients, in smaller tumours, and in N1b. However, multifocality "per se" was not associated, in our study, with worse clinical outcome in PTC patients. (Endokrynol Pol 2022; 73 (6): 928-934)

Is multifocality a risk factor in low-risk papillary thyroid cancer?

Sapuppo, Giulia;Di Benedetto, Guenda;Marturano, Ilenia;Costanzo, Gabriele;Belfiore, Antonino;Pellegriti, Gabriella
2022-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: Multifocality in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is a common event, ranging from 18% to 87%. Additional multiple foci are frequently very small and generally detected in pathology specimens. The mechanisms of intrathyroidal spread, and its correlation with age, gender, tumour size, and lymph node metastases remain unclear. Moreover, studies assessing the prognostic impact of PTC multifocal- ity have yielded non-univocal results. We aimed to evaluate the following: a) the histopathological and clinical characteristics associated with multifocal PTC; and b) the impact of multifocality on the long-term outcome.Material and methods: We analysed a consecutive series of 2814 PTC patients without evidence of microscopic extrathyroidal extension (T1a, T1b, and T2), all of whom had undergone total thyroidectomy and were followed-up (median 4.7 years) in our thyroid clinic. Females comprised 81.3% and males 18.7% (F/M = 4.4/1), with a median age at diagnosis of 45.0 years. Patients were subdivided into 2 groups: 72.7% unifocal tumour and 27.3% multifocal tumour. Post-surgical radioiodine ablation (RAI) (30-100 mCi of 131-I) was performed in 1425 (50.6%) patients. All patients were periodically followed with thyroglobulin and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies measurements and with neck ultrasonography under L-thyroxine therapy and subjected to additional radioiodine administration or another therapeutic measure if not cured.Results: Patients in the multifocal group were older (median age 46.4 vs. 44.5 years, respectively, p < 0.05) and presented a lower F/M ratio (F/M = 3.7/1 and 4.7/1; p = 0.01). T1a and T1b tumours showed no significant difference in multifocality rate whereas T2 tumours were less frequently multifocal (14.2% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.05). Multifocal tumours were more frequent in N1b (11.3% vs. 7.8%, p < 0.01) and less frequent in Nx (50.5% vs. 56.8%, p < 0.01), with no difference between the N0 and N1a groups. The clinical outcome was similar in the 2 group of patients (88.2 % in the unifocal group vs. 90.2% in the multifocal group).Conclusions: Multifocality is more frequent in older and male patients, in smaller tumours, and in N1b. However, multifocality "per se" was not associated, in our study, with worse clinical outcome in PTC patients. (Endokrynol Pol 2022; 73 (6): 928-934)
2022
risk factors
multifocal tumour
multifocality
papillary thyroid cancer
thyroid cancer outcome
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/552351
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact