Purpose of review: Peripheral nervous system vasculitides (PNSV) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with a clinical subset that may differ in prognosis and therapy. We provide a comprehensive update on the clinical assessment, diagnosis, complications, treatment, and follow-up of PNSV. Recent findings: Progress in neuroimaging, molecular testing, and peripheral nerve biopsy has improved clinical assessment and decision-making of PNSV, also providing novel insights on how to prevent misdiagnosis and increase diagnostic certainty. Advances in imaging techniques, allowing to clearly display the vessel walls, have also enhanced the possibility to differentiate inflammatory from non-inflammatory vascular lesions, while recent histopathology data have identified the main morphological criteria for more accurate diagnosis and differential diagnoses. Overall, the identification of peculiar morphological findings tends to improve diagnostic accuracy by defining a clearer boundary between systemic and non-systemic neuropathies. Therefore, the definition of epineurium vessel wall damage, type of vascular lesion, characterization of lymphocyte populations, antibodies, and inflammatory factors, as well as the identification of direct nerve damage or degeneration, are the common goals for pathologists and clinicians, who will both benefit for data integration and findings translation. Nevertheless, to date, treatment is still largely empiric and, in some cases, unsatisfactory, thus often precluding precise prognostic prediction. In this context, new diagnostic techniques and multidisciplinary management will be essential in the proper diagnosis and prompt management of PNSV, as highlighted in the present review. Thirty to fifty percent of all patients with vasculitis have signs of polyneuropathy. Neuropathies associated with systemic vasculitis are best managed according to the guidelines of the underlying disease because appropriate workup and initiation of treatment can reduce morbidity. Steroids, or in severe or progressive cases, cyclophosphamide pulse therapy is the standard therapy in non-systemic vasculitic neuropathies. Some patients need long-term immunosuppression. The use of novel technologies for high-throughput genotyping will permit to determine the genetic influence of related phenotypes in patients with PNSV.

Central and Peripheral Nervous System Complications of Vasculitis Syndromes from Pathology to Bedside: Part 2-Peripheral Nervous System

Lanza, Giuseppe
Secondo
;
Fisicaro, Francesco;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Purpose of review: Peripheral nervous system vasculitides (PNSV) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with a clinical subset that may differ in prognosis and therapy. We provide a comprehensive update on the clinical assessment, diagnosis, complications, treatment, and follow-up of PNSV. Recent findings: Progress in neuroimaging, molecular testing, and peripheral nerve biopsy has improved clinical assessment and decision-making of PNSV, also providing novel insights on how to prevent misdiagnosis and increase diagnostic certainty. Advances in imaging techniques, allowing to clearly display the vessel walls, have also enhanced the possibility to differentiate inflammatory from non-inflammatory vascular lesions, while recent histopathology data have identified the main morphological criteria for more accurate diagnosis and differential diagnoses. Overall, the identification of peculiar morphological findings tends to improve diagnostic accuracy by defining a clearer boundary between systemic and non-systemic neuropathies. Therefore, the definition of epineurium vessel wall damage, type of vascular lesion, characterization of lymphocyte populations, antibodies, and inflammatory factors, as well as the identification of direct nerve damage or degeneration, are the common goals for pathologists and clinicians, who will both benefit for data integration and findings translation. Nevertheless, to date, treatment is still largely empiric and, in some cases, unsatisfactory, thus often precluding precise prognostic prediction. In this context, new diagnostic techniques and multidisciplinary management will be essential in the proper diagnosis and prompt management of PNSV, as highlighted in the present review. Thirty to fifty percent of all patients with vasculitis have signs of polyneuropathy. Neuropathies associated with systemic vasculitis are best managed according to the guidelines of the underlying disease because appropriate workup and initiation of treatment can reduce morbidity. Steroids, or in severe or progressive cases, cyclophosphamide pulse therapy is the standard therapy in non-systemic vasculitic neuropathies. Some patients need long-term immunosuppression. The use of novel technologies for high-throughput genotyping will permit to determine the genetic influence of related phenotypes in patients with PNSV.
2023
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
Cyclophosphamide
Differential diagnoses
Glucocorticoid
Management
Peripheral nerves
Physiopathology
Treatment
Vasculitides
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/552685
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