Cynara cardunculus subsp. sylvestris (wild artichoke) is widespread in Sicily, where it has been used for food and medicinal purposes since ancient times; decoctions of the aerial parts of this plant have been traditionally employed as a remedy for different hepatic diseases. In this study, the phenolic profile and cell-free antioxidant properties of the leaf aqueous extract of wild artichokes grown in Sicily (Italy) were investigated. The crude extract was also tested in cells for its antioxidant characteristics and potential oxidative stress inhibitory effects. To resemble the features of the early stage of mild steatosis in humans, human HepG2 cells treated with free fatty acids at the concentration of 1.5 mM were used. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed the presence of several phenolic acids (caffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin derivatives). At the same time, DPPH assay showed a promising antioxidant power (IC50 = 20.04 +/- 2.52 mu g/mL). Biological investigations showed the safety of the crude extract and its capacity to counteract the injury induced by FFA exposure by restoring cell viability and counteracting oxidative stress through inhibiting reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and increasing thiol-group levels. In addition, the extract increased mRNA expression of some proteins implicated in the antioxidant defense (Nrf2, Gpx, and SOD1) and decreased mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta), which were modified by FFA treatment. Results suggest that the total phytocomplex contained in wild artichoke leaves effectively modulates FFA-induced hepatic oxidative stress.

Wild Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus subsp. sylvestris, Asteraceae) Leaf Extract: Phenolic Profile and Oxidative Stress Inhibitory Effects on HepG2 Cells

Acquaviva, Rosaria
Primo
Conceptualization
;
Malfa, Giuseppe Antonio
Conceptualization
;
Bianchi, Simone
Investigation
;
Di Giacomo, Claudia
Penultimo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Tomasello, Barbara
Ultimo
Membro del Collaboration Group
2023-01-01

Abstract

Cynara cardunculus subsp. sylvestris (wild artichoke) is widespread in Sicily, where it has been used for food and medicinal purposes since ancient times; decoctions of the aerial parts of this plant have been traditionally employed as a remedy for different hepatic diseases. In this study, the phenolic profile and cell-free antioxidant properties of the leaf aqueous extract of wild artichokes grown in Sicily (Italy) were investigated. The crude extract was also tested in cells for its antioxidant characteristics and potential oxidative stress inhibitory effects. To resemble the features of the early stage of mild steatosis in humans, human HepG2 cells treated with free fatty acids at the concentration of 1.5 mM were used. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed the presence of several phenolic acids (caffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin derivatives). At the same time, DPPH assay showed a promising antioxidant power (IC50 = 20.04 +/- 2.52 mu g/mL). Biological investigations showed the safety of the crude extract and its capacity to counteract the injury induced by FFA exposure by restoring cell viability and counteracting oxidative stress through inhibiting reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and increasing thiol-group levels. In addition, the extract increased mRNA expression of some proteins implicated in the antioxidant defense (Nrf2, Gpx, and SOD1) and decreased mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta), which were modified by FFA treatment. Results suggest that the total phytocomplex contained in wild artichoke leaves effectively modulates FFA-induced hepatic oxidative stress.
2023
Nrf2
ROS
cynarine
cytokines
glutathione
hepatoprotection
polyphenols
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/555702
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