Plant protection control based on the spray application of plant protection products is a very complex task depending on a series of factors, among which droplet size is the most influential for deposition and pesticide effectiveness. In fact, the adoption of the correct droplet size can ensure that the required dose reaches the target area and is not wasted, minimizes the off-target losses due to evaporation, drift and run-off and, at the same time, enhances the operator’s safety in terms of inhalation, ingestion and dermal exposure. In this paper, after defining some mean characteristic diameters helpful for a description of a drop population and focusing on the main drop size distribution functions for the statistical characterization of sprays, a critical analysis of known methods, both intrusive and non-intrusive, for drop size measurement is carried out by reviewing the literature. Among intrusive methods, the liquid immersion method and the use of water-sensitive papers are discussed, whereas, among non-intrusive methods, laser-based systems (laser diffraction, phase Doppler particle analysis) and high-speed imaging (shadowgrapy) are presented. Both types of method, intrusive and non-intrusive, can be used in machine-learning-based approaches exploiting regression techniques and neural network analysis.

Drop Size Measurement Techniques for Agricultural Sprays: A State-of-The-Art Review

Salvatore Privitera
Primo
;
Giuseppe Manetto
Secondo
;
Emanuele Cerruto
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Plant protection control based on the spray application of plant protection products is a very complex task depending on a series of factors, among which droplet size is the most influential for deposition and pesticide effectiveness. In fact, the adoption of the correct droplet size can ensure that the required dose reaches the target area and is not wasted, minimizes the off-target losses due to evaporation, drift and run-off and, at the same time, enhances the operator’s safety in terms of inhalation, ingestion and dermal exposure. In this paper, after defining some mean characteristic diameters helpful for a description of a drop population and focusing on the main drop size distribution functions for the statistical characterization of sprays, a critical analysis of known methods, both intrusive and non-intrusive, for drop size measurement is carried out by reviewing the literature. Among intrusive methods, the liquid immersion method and the use of water-sensitive papers are discussed, whereas, among non-intrusive methods, laser-based systems (laser diffraction, phase Doppler particle analysis) and high-speed imaging (shadowgrapy) are presented. Both types of method, intrusive and non-intrusive, can be used in machine-learning-based approaches exploiting regression techniques and neural network analysis.
2023
Droplet size distribution, image analysis, laser diffraction, PDPA, spray quality, spray characterization system
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
agronomy-13-00678-v2.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Versione finale pdf
Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 2.09 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.09 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/556162
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 7
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 7
social impact