The ketogenic diet (KD), a diet high in fat and protein but low in carbohydrates, is gaining much interest due to its positive effects, especially in neurodegenerative diseases. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), the major ketone body produced during the carbohydrate deprivation that occurs in KD, is assumed to have neuroprotective effects, although the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are still unclear. Microglial cell activation plays a key role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, resulting in the production of several proinflammatory secondary metabolites. The following study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which BHB determines the activation processes of BV2 microglial cells, such as polarization, cell migration and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, in the absence or in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a proinflammatory stimulus. The results showed that BHB has a neuroprotective effect in BV2 cells, inducing both microglial polarization towards an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype and reducing migratory capacity following LPS stimulation. Furthermore, BHB significantly reduced expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 and increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. From this study, it can be concluded that BHB, and consequently the KD, has a fundamental role in neuroprotection and prevention in neurodegenerative diseases, presenting new therapeutic targets.

The Ketogenic Diet and Neuroinflammation: The Action of Beta-Hydroxybutyrate in a Microglial Cell Line

Sessa, Francesco
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The ketogenic diet (KD), a diet high in fat and protein but low in carbohydrates, is gaining much interest due to its positive effects, especially in neurodegenerative diseases. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), the major ketone body produced during the carbohydrate deprivation that occurs in KD, is assumed to have neuroprotective effects, although the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are still unclear. Microglial cell activation plays a key role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, resulting in the production of several proinflammatory secondary metabolites. The following study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which BHB determines the activation processes of BV2 microglial cells, such as polarization, cell migration and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, in the absence or in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a proinflammatory stimulus. The results showed that BHB has a neuroprotective effect in BV2 cells, inducing both microglial polarization towards an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype and reducing migratory capacity following LPS stimulation. Furthermore, BHB significantly reduced expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 and increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. From this study, it can be concluded that BHB, and consequently the KD, has a fundamental role in neuroprotection and prevention in neurodegenerative diseases, presenting new therapeutic targets.
2023
beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)
ketogenic diet
microglial cell line (BV2)
neuroinflammation
neuroprotection
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/556244
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