Throughout the various containment phases of a pandemic, such as Covid-19, digital tools and services have proven to be essential measures to counteract the ensuing disrupting effects in social and working interactions. In such scenarios, Nausica@DApp, the comprehensive solution proposed in this paper, eases compatibility of the in-presence activities of a campus-based corporation with the organizational constraints posed by the virus during the pandemic, or at a later endemic stage. This is accomplished throughout several intervention areas, such as personnel contact tracing, crowd gathering surveillance, and epidemiological monitoring. These operational requirements, in particular indirect contact tracing and overcrowd monitoring, call for the adoption of an absolute device localization paradigm, which, in the proposed solution, has been devised on top of the campus WiFi infrastructure, proving to be encouragingly accurate in most cases. Absolute localization, on the other hand, entails a certain amount of server-based centralized operations, which might affect the preservation of user data privacy. The novelty of the proposed solution consists in maximizing confidentiality and integrity in the handling of sensitive personal information, in spite of the centralized aspects of the localization system. This is accomplished by decentralizing contact tracing matching operations, which are entirely carried out locally, by apps running on the users' mobile devices. Contact data are pseudonymized and their authenticity is guaranteed by a blockchain. Furthermore, the proposed novel solution improves privacy preservation by eschewing recourse to the Bluetooth app-to-app channel for user data exchange, in fact a typical choice of most current contract tracing solutions. Thanks to a sensible use of the blockchain features, integrated into Nausica@DApp's microservice-based back-end, a higher degree of operation transparency can be relied upon, thus boosting the user's level of trust and enhancing the availability and reliability of data about people gathering within the campus premises. Moreover, contact tracing only requires the mobile device WiFi interface to be on, so that users are neither forced to adopt new habits, nor to grant additional device access permissions to contact tracing apps (potentially undermining their own privacy). The overall system has been analysed in terms of performance and costs, and the experiments have shown that its adoption is viable and effective.

A Decentralized Solution for Epidemiological Surveillance in Campus Scenarios

Fornaia, A;Marotta, G
;
Pappalardo, G;Tramontana, E
2022-01-01

Abstract

Throughout the various containment phases of a pandemic, such as Covid-19, digital tools and services have proven to be essential measures to counteract the ensuing disrupting effects in social and working interactions. In such scenarios, Nausica@DApp, the comprehensive solution proposed in this paper, eases compatibility of the in-presence activities of a campus-based corporation with the organizational constraints posed by the virus during the pandemic, or at a later endemic stage. This is accomplished throughout several intervention areas, such as personnel contact tracing, crowd gathering surveillance, and epidemiological monitoring. These operational requirements, in particular indirect contact tracing and overcrowd monitoring, call for the adoption of an absolute device localization paradigm, which, in the proposed solution, has been devised on top of the campus WiFi infrastructure, proving to be encouragingly accurate in most cases. Absolute localization, on the other hand, entails a certain amount of server-based centralized operations, which might affect the preservation of user data privacy. The novelty of the proposed solution consists in maximizing confidentiality and integrity in the handling of sensitive personal information, in spite of the centralized aspects of the localization system. This is accomplished by decentralizing contact tracing matching operations, which are entirely carried out locally, by apps running on the users' mobile devices. Contact data are pseudonymized and their authenticity is guaranteed by a blockchain. Furthermore, the proposed novel solution improves privacy preservation by eschewing recourse to the Bluetooth app-to-app channel for user data exchange, in fact a typical choice of most current contract tracing solutions. Thanks to a sensible use of the blockchain features, integrated into Nausica@DApp's microservice-based back-end, a higher degree of operation transparency can be relied upon, thus boosting the user's level of trust and enhancing the availability and reliability of data about people gathering within the campus premises. Moreover, contact tracing only requires the mobile device WiFi interface to be on, so that users are neither forced to adopt new habits, nor to grant additional device access permissions to contact tracing apps (potentially undermining their own privacy). The overall system has been analysed in terms of performance and costs, and the experiments have shown that its adoption is viable and effective.
2022
Blockchain, contact tracing, data analysis, decentralized apps, distributed systems, epi- demiological surveillance, localization, mobile applications, smart contracts
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/558284
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