: Clozapine (CZP) is the only effective drug in schizophrenia resistant to typical antipsychotics. However, existing dosage forms (oral or orodispersible tablets, suspensions or intramuscular injection) show challenging limitations. After oral administration, CZP has low bioavailability due to a large first-pass effect, while the i.m. route is often painful, with low patient compliance and requiring specialised personnel. Moreover, CZP has a very low aqueous solubility. This study proposes the intranasal route as an alternative route of administration for CZP, through its encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on Eudragit® RS100 and RL100 copolymers. Slow-release polymeric NPs with dimensions around 400-500 nm were formulated to reside and release CZP in the nasal cavity, where it can be absorbed through the nasal mucosa and reach the systemic circulation. CZP-EUD-NPs showed a controlled release of CZP for up to 8 h. Furthermore, to reduce mucociliary clearance and increase the residence time of NPs in the nasal cavity to improve drug bioavailability, mucoadhesive NPs were formulated. This study shows that the NPs already exhibited strong electrostatic interactions with mucin at time zero due to the presence of the positive charge of the used copolymers. Furthermore, to improve the solubility, diffusion and adsorption of CZPs and the storage stability of the formulation, it was lyophilised using 5% (w/v) HP-β-CD as a cryoprotectant. It ensured the preservation of the NPs' size, PDI and charge upon reconstitution. Moreover, physicochemical characterisation studies of solid-state NPs were performed. Finally, toxicity studies were performed in vitro on MDCKII cells and primary human olfactory mucosa cells and in vivo on the nasal mucosa of CD-1 mice. The latter showed non-toxicity of B-EUD-NPs and mild CZP-EUD-NP-induced tissue abnormalities.

Development of Lyophilised Eudragit® Retard Nanoparticles for the Sustained Release of Clozapine via Intranasal Administration

Lombardo, Rosamaria;Pignatello, Rosario
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Clozapine (CZP) is the only effective drug in schizophrenia resistant to typical antipsychotics. However, existing dosage forms (oral or orodispersible tablets, suspensions or intramuscular injection) show challenging limitations. After oral administration, CZP has low bioavailability due to a large first-pass effect, while the i.m. route is often painful, with low patient compliance and requiring specialised personnel. Moreover, CZP has a very low aqueous solubility. This study proposes the intranasal route as an alternative route of administration for CZP, through its encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on Eudragit® RS100 and RL100 copolymers. Slow-release polymeric NPs with dimensions around 400-500 nm were formulated to reside and release CZP in the nasal cavity, where it can be absorbed through the nasal mucosa and reach the systemic circulation. CZP-EUD-NPs showed a controlled release of CZP for up to 8 h. Furthermore, to reduce mucociliary clearance and increase the residence time of NPs in the nasal cavity to improve drug bioavailability, mucoadhesive NPs were formulated. This study shows that the NPs already exhibited strong electrostatic interactions with mucin at time zero due to the presence of the positive charge of the used copolymers. Furthermore, to improve the solubility, diffusion and adsorption of CZPs and the storage stability of the formulation, it was lyophilised using 5% (w/v) HP-β-CD as a cryoprotectant. It ensured the preservation of the NPs' size, PDI and charge upon reconstitution. Moreover, physicochemical characterisation studies of solid-state NPs were performed. Finally, toxicity studies were performed in vitro on MDCKII cells and primary human olfactory mucosa cells and in vivo on the nasal mucosa of CD-1 mice. The latter showed non-toxicity of B-EUD-NPs and mild CZP-EUD-NP-induced tissue abnormalities.
2023
Eudragit RL100
Eudragit RS100
cryoprotectants
mucoadhesion
nanomedicine
stability
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/560283
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