The nonassociation of coronal mass ejections with high energetic flares is sparse. For this reason, the magnetic conditions required for the confinedness of major flares is a topic of active research. Using multi-instrument observations, we investigated the evolution and effects of confinedness in an X3.1 flare, which occurred in active region (AR) 12192. The decrease of net fluxes in the brightening regions near the footpoints of the multisigmoidal AR in the photosphere and chromosphere, indicative of flux cancellation favoring tether-cutting reconnection (TCR), is observed using the magnetic field observations of HMI/SDO and SOT/Hinode, respectively. The analysis of spectropolarimetric data obtained by the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer over the brightening regions suggests untwisting of field lines, which further supports TCR. Filaments near the polarity inversion line region, resulting from TCR of low-lying sheared loops, undergo merging and form an elongated filament. The temperature and density differences between the footpoints of the merged filament, revealed by DEM analysis, cause streaming and counterstreaming of the plasma flow along the filament and unload at its footpoints with an average velocity of ≈40 km s−1 . This results in a decrease of the mass of the filament (density decreased by >50%), leading to its rise and expansion outward. However, due to strong strapping flux, the filament separates itself instead of erupting. Further, the evolution of nonpotential parameters describes the characteristics of confinedness of the flare. Our study suggests that the sigmoid–filament system exhibits upward catastrophe due to mass unloading but gets suppressed by strong confinement of the external poloidal field.
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