Lung cancer (LC) represents the second most diagnosed tumor and the malignancy with the highest mortality rate. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in the treatment of this tumor thanks to the discovery, testing, and clinical approval of novel therapeutic approaches. Firstly, targeted therapies aimed at inhibiting specific mutated tyrosine kinases or downstream factors were approved in clinical practice. Secondly, immunotherapy inducing the reactivation of the immune system to efficiently eliminate LC cells has been approved. This review describes in depth both current and ongoing clinical studies, which allowed the approval of targeted therapies and immune-checkpoint inhibitors as standard of care for LC. Moreover, the present advantages and pitfalls of new therapeutic approaches will be discussed. Finally, the acquired importance of human microbiota as a novel source of LC biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets to improve the efficacy of available therapies, was analyzed. Therapy against LC is increasingly becoming holistic, taking into consideration not only the genetic landscape of the tumor, but also the immune background and other individual variables, such as patient-specific gut microbial composition. On these bases, in the future, the research milestones reached will allow clinicians to treat LC patients with tailored approaches.

Clinical Relevance of Targeted Therapy and Immune-Checkpoint Inhibition in Lung Cancer

Leone, Gian Marco;Candido, Saverio;Lavoro, Alessandro;Vivarelli, Silvia;Gattuso, Giuseppe;Libra, Massimo
;
Falzone, Luca
2023-01-01

Abstract

Lung cancer (LC) represents the second most diagnosed tumor and the malignancy with the highest mortality rate. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in the treatment of this tumor thanks to the discovery, testing, and clinical approval of novel therapeutic approaches. Firstly, targeted therapies aimed at inhibiting specific mutated tyrosine kinases or downstream factors were approved in clinical practice. Secondly, immunotherapy inducing the reactivation of the immune system to efficiently eliminate LC cells has been approved. This review describes in depth both current and ongoing clinical studies, which allowed the approval of targeted therapies and immune-checkpoint inhibitors as standard of care for LC. Moreover, the present advantages and pitfalls of new therapeutic approaches will be discussed. Finally, the acquired importance of human microbiota as a novel source of LC biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets to improve the efficacy of available therapies, was analyzed. Therapy against LC is increasingly becoming holistic, taking into consideration not only the genetic landscape of the tumor, but also the immune background and other individual variables, such as patient-specific gut microbial composition. On these bases, in the future, the research milestones reached will allow clinicians to treat LC patients with tailored approaches.
2023
dysbiosis
immune-checkpoint inhibitors
lung cancer
microbiome
targeted therapy
tyrosine kinase inhibitors
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
pharmaceutics-15-01252.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 3.16 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
3.16 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/571154
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 4
  • Scopus 6
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 7
social impact