Significance: Several therapeutic strategies for cancer treatments have been developed with time, and significant milestones have been achieved recently. However, with these novel therapies, not all cancer types respond and in the responding cancer types only a subset is affected. The failure to respond is principally the result that these cancers develop several mechanisms of resistance. Thus, a focus of current research investigations is to unravel the various mechanisms that regulate resistance and identify suitable targets for new therapeutics.Recent Advances: Hence, many human cancer types have been reported to overexpress the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and it has been suggested that iNOS/nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of resistance. We have postulated that iNOS overexpression or NO regulates the overexpression of pivotal anti-apoptotic gene products such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), B-cell lymphoma extra large (Bcl-xL), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), and survivin. In this report, we describe the various mechanisms, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational, by which iNOS/NO regulates the expression of the above anti-apoptotic gene products.Critical Issues: The iNOS/NO-mediated regulation of the four gene products is not the same with both specific and overlapping pathways. Our findings are, in large part, validated by bioinformatic analyses demonstrating, in several cancers, several direct correlations between the expression of iNOS and each of the four examined anti-apoptotic gene products.Future Directions: We have proposed that targeting iNOS may be highly efficient since it will result in the underexpression of multiple anti-apoptotic proteins and shifting the balance toward the proapoptotic gene products and reversal of resistance.

Cancer Resistance Is Mediated by the Upregulation of Several Anti-Apoptotic Gene Products via the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase/Nitric Oxide Pathway: Therapeutic Implications

Libra, Massimo;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Significance: Several therapeutic strategies for cancer treatments have been developed with time, and significant milestones have been achieved recently. However, with these novel therapies, not all cancer types respond and in the responding cancer types only a subset is affected. The failure to respond is principally the result that these cancers develop several mechanisms of resistance. Thus, a focus of current research investigations is to unravel the various mechanisms that regulate resistance and identify suitable targets for new therapeutics.Recent Advances: Hence, many human cancer types have been reported to overexpress the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and it has been suggested that iNOS/nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of resistance. We have postulated that iNOS overexpression or NO regulates the overexpression of pivotal anti-apoptotic gene products such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), B-cell lymphoma extra large (Bcl-xL), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), and survivin. In this report, we describe the various mechanisms, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational, by which iNOS/NO regulates the expression of the above anti-apoptotic gene products.Critical Issues: The iNOS/NO-mediated regulation of the four gene products is not the same with both specific and overlapping pathways. Our findings are, in large part, validated by bioinformatic analyses demonstrating, in several cancers, several direct correlations between the expression of iNOS and each of the four examined anti-apoptotic gene products.Future Directions: We have proposed that targeting iNOS may be highly efficient since it will result in the underexpression of multiple anti-apoptotic proteins and shifting the balance toward the proapoptotic gene products and reversal of resistance.
2023
Bcl-2
Bcl-xL
Mcl-1
apoptosis
cancer
iNOS
nitric oxide
resistance
survivin
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/571170
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