This paper provides a detailed identification and assessment of hormetic dose responses in neural stem cells (NSCs) as identified in a number of animal models and human tissues, with particular emphasis on cell proliferation and differentiation. Hormetic dose responses were commonly observed following administration of a number of agents, including dietary supplements [e.g., berberine, curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), Ginkgo Biloba, resveratrol], pharmaceuticals (e.g., lithium, lovastatin, melatonin), endogenous ligands [e.g., hydrogen sulfide (H2S), magnesium, progesterone, taurine], environmental contaminants (e.g., arsenic, rotenone) and physical agents [e.g., hypoxia, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic radiation (EMF)]. These data indicate that numerous agents can induce hormetic dose responses to upregulate key functions of such as cell proliferation and differentiation in NSCs, and enhance resilience to inflammatory stresses. The paper assesses both putative mechanisms of hormetic responses in NSCs, and the potential therapeutic implications and application(s) of hormetic frameworks in clinical approaches to neurological injury and disease.
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