: Significance: The stria vascularis, located in the inner ear, consists of three layers, one of which is the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB). It is formed by endothelial cells, sealed together to prevent the passage of toxic substances from the blood to the inner ear, by pericytes and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocyte. Recent Advances: There are various causes that lead to hearing loss, and among these are noise-induced and autoimmune hearing loss, ear disorders related to ototoxic medication, Ménière's disease, and age-related hearing loss. For all of these, major therapeutic interventions include drug-loaded nanoparticles, via intratympanic or intracochlear delivery. Critical Issues: Since many pathologies associated with hearing loss are characterized by a weakening of the BLB, in this review, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response to damage of BLB cellular components have been discussed. In addition, insight into the role of hormetic nutrients against hearing loss pathology is proposed. Future Directions: BLB cellular components of neurovascular cochlear unit play important physiological roles, owing to their impermeable function against all ototoxic substances that can induce damage. Studies are needed to investigate the cross talk occurring between these cellular components to exploit their possible role as novel targets for therapeutic interventions that may unravel future path based on the use of hormetic nutrients.

Blood-Labyrinth Barrier in Health and Diseases: Effect of Hormetic Nutrients

Cosentino, Alessia;Agafonova, Aleksandra;Modafferi, Sergio;Trovato Salinaro, Angela;Scuto, Maria;Maiolino, Luigi;Lupo, Gabriella;Anfuso, Carmelina Daniela;Calabrese, Vittorio
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Significance: The stria vascularis, located in the inner ear, consists of three layers, one of which is the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB). It is formed by endothelial cells, sealed together to prevent the passage of toxic substances from the blood to the inner ear, by pericytes and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocyte. Recent Advances: There are various causes that lead to hearing loss, and among these are noise-induced and autoimmune hearing loss, ear disorders related to ototoxic medication, Ménière's disease, and age-related hearing loss. For all of these, major therapeutic interventions include drug-loaded nanoparticles, via intratympanic or intracochlear delivery. Critical Issues: Since many pathologies associated with hearing loss are characterized by a weakening of the BLB, in this review, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response to damage of BLB cellular components have been discussed. In addition, insight into the role of hormetic nutrients against hearing loss pathology is proposed. Future Directions: BLB cellular components of neurovascular cochlear unit play important physiological roles, owing to their impermeable function against all ototoxic substances that can induce damage. Studies are needed to investigate the cross talk occurring between these cellular components to exploit their possible role as novel targets for therapeutic interventions that may unravel future path based on the use of hormetic nutrients.
2023
hormesis
organoids
sensorineural hearing loss
blood–labyrinth barrier
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/580629
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