In the last years, the use of clay minerals for pharmaceutical purposes has increased due to their interesting properties. Hectorite (Ht) is a clay belonging to the smectite group which has attracted attention for applications in biology, tissue engineering and as drug carrier and delivery system. However, the mechanisms involved in Ht cellular uptake and transport into cells, are still unclear. Herein, we used a labeled Ht (Ht/1Cl) to study both the cellular uptake, by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and internalization pathways involved in the cellular uptake, by various endocytosis-inhibiting studies and fluorescence microscopy. These studies highlighted that Ht can penetrate the cellular membrane, localizing mainly in the cytoplasm. The main intracellular transport mechanisms are the ATP-dependent ones and those where filaments and microtubules are involved. Finally, as proof of concept for the potential of Ht as carrier system, we envisaged the covalent grafting of the anticancer molecule methotrexate (MTX), chosen as model, to obtain the Ht-MTX nanomaterial. The covalent linkage was confirmed by several techniques and the morphology of the obtained nanomaterial was imaged by SEM and TEM investigations. The kinetic release of the drug from the Ht-MTX nanomaterial in physiological conditions was studied as well. Furthermore, cytotoxic studies on different cell lines, namely, HL-60, HL-60R, MCF-7, 5637, UMUC3 and RT112 showed that Ht could be a promising material for anticancer therapy.

Exploring the cellular uptake of hectorite clay mineral and its drug carrier capabilities

Riela, Serena
2022-01-01

Abstract

In the last years, the use of clay minerals for pharmaceutical purposes has increased due to their interesting properties. Hectorite (Ht) is a clay belonging to the smectite group which has attracted attention for applications in biology, tissue engineering and as drug carrier and delivery system. However, the mechanisms involved in Ht cellular uptake and transport into cells, are still unclear. Herein, we used a labeled Ht (Ht/1Cl) to study both the cellular uptake, by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and internalization pathways involved in the cellular uptake, by various endocytosis-inhibiting studies and fluorescence microscopy. These studies highlighted that Ht can penetrate the cellular membrane, localizing mainly in the cytoplasm. The main intracellular transport mechanisms are the ATP-dependent ones and those where filaments and microtubules are involved. Finally, as proof of concept for the potential of Ht as carrier system, we envisaged the covalent grafting of the anticancer molecule methotrexate (MTX), chosen as model, to obtain the Ht-MTX nanomaterial. The covalent linkage was confirmed by several techniques and the morphology of the obtained nanomaterial was imaged by SEM and TEM investigations. The kinetic release of the drug from the Ht-MTX nanomaterial in physiological conditions was studied as well. Furthermore, cytotoxic studies on different cell lines, namely, HL-60, HL-60R, MCF-7, 5637, UMUC3 and RT112 showed that Ht could be a promising material for anticancer therapy.
2022
Hectorite
Cellular uptake
Cellular internalization
Methotrexate
Cytotoxicity
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/582399
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