How the size of female yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) affects their spawning capability and fecundity is still an open and unresolved question due to the difficulties in investigating these complex effects in highly migratory pelagic marine fish species. However, this information is key to understanding the reproductive potential and resilience of the stock. We investigate how energetic resources are allocated for reproduction by female yellowfin tuna according to their size in the Gulf of Guinea (central-eastern Atlantic Ocean). Our results reveal that larger females have not only larger ovaries by virtue of their greater abdominal cavity, but also different fatty acid profiles in the gonads compared to smaller females, with potential effects on their spawning and recruitment patterns. This study contributes to the knowledge of size-dependent variation in female yellowfin tuna and paves the way for future studies on size-dependent effects on reproductive parameters in this species.
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