IntroductionAtherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a leading cause of global mortality, imposing substantial healthcare economic burdens. Among the modifiable risk factors, hypercholesterolemia, especially elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), plays a pivotal role in ASCVD development. Novel therapies such as PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9) inhibitors are emerging to address this concern. These inhibitors offer the potential to reduce ASCVD risk by directly targeting LDL-C levels.Areas coveredThe article reviews the structural and functional aspects of PCSK9, highlighting its role in LDL receptor regulation. The pharmacological strategies for PCSK9 inhibition, including monoclonal antibodies, binding peptides, gene silencing, and active immunization, are explored. Clinical evidence from various trials underscores the safety and efficacy of PCSK9 inhibitors in reducing LDL-C levels and potentially improving cardiovascular outcomes. Despite these promising results, challenges such as cost-effectiveness and long-term safety considerations are addressed.Expert opinionAmong PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies represent a cornerstone. Many trials have showed their efficacy in reducing LDL-C and the risk for major adverse clinical events, revealing long-lasting effects, with special benefits particularly for statin-intolerant and familial hypercholesterolemia patients. However, long-term impacts, high costs, and patient selection necessitate further research.

PCSK9 inhibitors: current status and emerging frontiers in lipid control

Agnello, Federica;Mauro, Maria Sara;Rochira, Carla;Landolina, Davide;Finocchiaro, Simone;Greco, Antonio;Ammirabile, Nicola;Raffo, Carmelo;Mazzone, Placido Maria;Spagnolo, Marco;Occhipinti, Giovanni;Imbesi, Antonino;Giacoppo, Daniele;Capodanno, Davide
2023-01-01

Abstract

IntroductionAtherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a leading cause of global mortality, imposing substantial healthcare economic burdens. Among the modifiable risk factors, hypercholesterolemia, especially elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), plays a pivotal role in ASCVD development. Novel therapies such as PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9) inhibitors are emerging to address this concern. These inhibitors offer the potential to reduce ASCVD risk by directly targeting LDL-C levels.Areas coveredThe article reviews the structural and functional aspects of PCSK9, highlighting its role in LDL receptor regulation. The pharmacological strategies for PCSK9 inhibition, including monoclonal antibodies, binding peptides, gene silencing, and active immunization, are explored. Clinical evidence from various trials underscores the safety and efficacy of PCSK9 inhibitors in reducing LDL-C levels and potentially improving cardiovascular outcomes. Despite these promising results, challenges such as cost-effectiveness and long-term safety considerations are addressed.Expert opinionAmong PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies represent a cornerstone. Many trials have showed their efficacy in reducing LDL-C and the risk for major adverse clinical events, revealing long-lasting effects, with special benefits particularly for statin-intolerant and familial hypercholesterolemia patients. However, long-term impacts, high costs, and patient selection necessitate further research.
2023
LDL cholesterol
PCSK9 inhibitors
alirocumab
evolocumab
inclisiran
lipid-lowering therapy
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/590130
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