Lifestyle factors, particularly physical inactivity, are closely linked to the onset of numerous metabolic diseases. Adipose tissue (AT) has been extensively studied for various metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and immune system dysregulation due to its role in energy metabolism and regulation of inflammation. Physical activity is increasingly recognized as a powerful non-pharmacological tool for the treatment of various disorders, as it helps to improve metabolic, immune, and inflammatory functions. However, chronic excessive training has been associated with increased inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, so much so that excessive training overload, combined with inadequate recovery, can lead to the development of overtraining syndrome (OTS). OTS negatively impacts an athlete’s performance capabilities and significantly affects both physical health and mental well-being. However, diagnosing OTS remains challenging as the contributing factors, signs/symptoms, and underlying maladaptive mechanisms are individualized, sport-specific, and unclear. Therefore, identifying potential biomarkers that could assist in preventing and/or diagnosing OTS is an important objective. In this review, we focus on the possibility that the endocrine functions of AT may have significant implications in the etiopathogenesis of OTS. During physical exercise, AT responds dynamically, undergoing remodeling of endocrine functions that influence the production of adipokines involved in regulating major energy and inflammatory processes. In this scenario, we will discuss exercise about its effects on AT activity and metabolism and its relevance to the prevention and/or development of OTS. Furthermore, we will highlight adipokines as potential markers for diagnosing OTS

A Narrative Review on Adipose Tissue and Overtraining: Shedding Light on the Interplay among Adipokines, Exercise and Overtraining

Musumeci, Giuseppe
Penultimo
;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Lifestyle factors, particularly physical inactivity, are closely linked to the onset of numerous metabolic diseases. Adipose tissue (AT) has been extensively studied for various metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and immune system dysregulation due to its role in energy metabolism and regulation of inflammation. Physical activity is increasingly recognized as a powerful non-pharmacological tool for the treatment of various disorders, as it helps to improve metabolic, immune, and inflammatory functions. However, chronic excessive training has been associated with increased inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, so much so that excessive training overload, combined with inadequate recovery, can lead to the development of overtraining syndrome (OTS). OTS negatively impacts an athlete’s performance capabilities and significantly affects both physical health and mental well-being. However, diagnosing OTS remains challenging as the contributing factors, signs/symptoms, and underlying maladaptive mechanisms are individualized, sport-specific, and unclear. Therefore, identifying potential biomarkers that could assist in preventing and/or diagnosing OTS is an important objective. In this review, we focus on the possibility that the endocrine functions of AT may have significant implications in the etiopathogenesis of OTS. During physical exercise, AT responds dynamically, undergoing remodeling of endocrine functions that influence the production of adipokines involved in regulating major energy and inflammatory processes. In this scenario, we will discuss exercise about its effects on AT activity and metabolism and its relevance to the prevention and/or development of OTS. Furthermore, we will highlight adipokines as potential markers for diagnosing OTS
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/601811
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