: Objectives: To provide an in-depth analysis of noninvasive methods for the early diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions, focusing on novel biomarkers and optical technologies, and to discuss their potential in improving the prognosis of patients with oral oncological diseases. Methods: This state-of-the-art review examines various noninvasive diagnostic techniques, including the utilization of salivary microRNAs and optical technologies such as Raman spectroscopy, elastic scattering spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, narrow-band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, toluidine blue staining, and microendoscopy. Results: Several noninvasive techniques have shown varying degrees of effectiveness in detecting oral cancer. Autofluorescence imaging exhibited sensitivities up to 100% but had variable specificity. toluidine blue staining reported sensitivity between 77% and 100% for high-risk lesions or cancer, with specificity around 45% to 67%. Spectroscopy techniques achieved 72% to 100% sensitivities and specificities of 75% to 98%. Microendoscopy presented a sensitivity of 84% to 95% and a specificity of 91% to 95%. Conclusion: The review highlights the strengths and limitations of each noninvasive diagnostic method and their recent advancements. Although promising results have been demonstrated, there is a need for further development of reliable strategies for early detection and intervention in oral oncology.

Past, Present, and Future Diagnostic Methods for the Early Noninvasive Detection of Oral Premalignant Lesions: A State of the Art and Systematic Review

Ingrassia, Angelo;Maniaci, Antonino;Polosa, Riccardo
2024-01-01

Abstract

: Objectives: To provide an in-depth analysis of noninvasive methods for the early diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions, focusing on novel biomarkers and optical technologies, and to discuss their potential in improving the prognosis of patients with oral oncological diseases. Methods: This state-of-the-art review examines various noninvasive diagnostic techniques, including the utilization of salivary microRNAs and optical technologies such as Raman spectroscopy, elastic scattering spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, narrow-band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, toluidine blue staining, and microendoscopy. Results: Several noninvasive techniques have shown varying degrees of effectiveness in detecting oral cancer. Autofluorescence imaging exhibited sensitivities up to 100% but had variable specificity. toluidine blue staining reported sensitivity between 77% and 100% for high-risk lesions or cancer, with specificity around 45% to 67%. Spectroscopy techniques achieved 72% to 100% sensitivities and specificities of 75% to 98%. Microendoscopy presented a sensitivity of 84% to 95% and a specificity of 91% to 95%. Conclusion: The review highlights the strengths and limitations of each noninvasive diagnostic method and their recent advancements. Although promising results have been demonstrated, there is a need for further development of reliable strategies for early detection and intervention in oral oncology.
2024
diagnosis
noninvasive biomarkers
noninvasive test
oral cancer
oral leukoplakia
saliva testing
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/606752
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