: Detrimental effects of smoking on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-dependent immunosuppression and hepatoprotection are unknown. Herewith, by using α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-induced liver injury, a well-established murine model of fulminant hepatitis, we examined molecular mechanisms which were responsible for negative effects of cigarette smoke on MSC-dependent immunomodulation. MSC which were grown in cigarette smoke-exposed medium (MSCWS-CM) obtained pro-inflammatory phenotype, were not able to optimally produce hepatoprotective and immunosuppressive cytokines (TGF-β, HGF, IL-10, NO, KYN), and secreted significantly higher amounts of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-6) than MSC that were cultured in standard medium never exposed to cigarette smoke (MSCCM). In contrast to MSCCM, which efficiently attenuated α-GalCer-induced hepatitis, MSCWS-CM were not able to prevent hepatocyte injury and liver inflammation. MSCWS-CM had reduced capacity for the suppression of liver-infiltrated inflammatory macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and lymphocytes. Although significantly lower number of IL-12-producing macrophages and DCs, TNF-α, IFN-γ or IL-17-producing CD4 + and CD8 +T lymphocytes, NK and NKT cells were noticed in the livers of α-GalCer+MSCCM-treated mice compared to α-GalCer+saline-treated animals, this phenomenon was not observed in α-GalCer-injured mice that received MSCWS-CM. MSCWS-CM could not induce expansion of anti-inflammatory IL-10-producing FoxP3 +CD4 + and CD8 + T regulatory cells and were not able to create immunosuppressive microenvironment in the liver as MSCCM. Similarly as it was observed in mice, MSCWS-CM were not able to optimally inhibit production of inflammatory and hepatototoxic cytokines in activated human Th1/Th17 and NKT1/NKT17 cells, confirming the hypothesis that cigarette smoke significantly attenuates therapeutic potential of MSC in cell-based immunotherapy of inflammatory liver diseases.

Cigarette smoke attenuates mesenchymal stem cell-based suppression of immune cell-driven acute liver failure

Polosa, Riccardo;Volti, Giovanni Li;Caruso, Massimo;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Detrimental effects of smoking on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-dependent immunosuppression and hepatoprotection are unknown. Herewith, by using α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-induced liver injury, a well-established murine model of fulminant hepatitis, we examined molecular mechanisms which were responsible for negative effects of cigarette smoke on MSC-dependent immunomodulation. MSC which were grown in cigarette smoke-exposed medium (MSCWS-CM) obtained pro-inflammatory phenotype, were not able to optimally produce hepatoprotective and immunosuppressive cytokines (TGF-β, HGF, IL-10, NO, KYN), and secreted significantly higher amounts of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-6) than MSC that were cultured in standard medium never exposed to cigarette smoke (MSCCM). In contrast to MSCCM, which efficiently attenuated α-GalCer-induced hepatitis, MSCWS-CM were not able to prevent hepatocyte injury and liver inflammation. MSCWS-CM had reduced capacity for the suppression of liver-infiltrated inflammatory macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and lymphocytes. Although significantly lower number of IL-12-producing macrophages and DCs, TNF-α, IFN-γ or IL-17-producing CD4 + and CD8 +T lymphocytes, NK and NKT cells were noticed in the livers of α-GalCer+MSCCM-treated mice compared to α-GalCer+saline-treated animals, this phenomenon was not observed in α-GalCer-injured mice that received MSCWS-CM. MSCWS-CM could not induce expansion of anti-inflammatory IL-10-producing FoxP3 +CD4 + and CD8 + T regulatory cells and were not able to create immunosuppressive microenvironment in the liver as MSCCM. Similarly as it was observed in mice, MSCWS-CM were not able to optimally inhibit production of inflammatory and hepatototoxic cytokines in activated human Th1/Th17 and NKT1/NKT17 cells, confirming the hypothesis that cigarette smoke significantly attenuates therapeutic potential of MSC in cell-based immunotherapy of inflammatory liver diseases.
2023
Acute hepatitis
Cigarette smoke
Hepatoprotection
Immunosuppression
Mesenchymal stem cells
Therapy
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/606795
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